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Articles on this Page
- 04/02/16--04:02: _The Da Vinci Code
- 04/02/16--04:07: _Herne the Hunter
- 04/02/16--04:28: _World's 10 Most Mys...
- 04/03/16--03:35: _Paulo Coelho
- 04/04/16--03:40: _Snakes and Ladders....
- 04/04/16--03:53: _Eyes Wide Shut
- 04/05/16--02:59: _Zelator
- 04/09/16--02:22: _The Secret Doctrine
- 05/19/16--04:18: _Muse
- 06/14/16--04:59: _Seeing "Auras", and...
- 06/16/16--04:32: _We’re probably livi...
- 06/17/16--05:20: _Michio Kaku:Is God ...
- 06/17/16--05:34: _Frederic Lionel
- 06/18/16--01:46: _Invisible: the Dang...
- 06/18/16--01:55: _Pi (film)
- 06/18/16--01:59: _Omen
- 06/18/16--02:21: _Hilma af Klint
- 06/18/16--02:26: _Georgiana Houghton
- 06/18/16--02:41: _Artistic inspiration
- 06/18/16--02:48: _Jacob's Ladder
- 08/13/16--01:57: _The Imaginal World
- 08/13/16--02:00: _The Esoteric Philos...
- 08/13/16--02:09: _Hypoxia, Hallucinat...
- 08/13/16--02:15: _Opening the Doors o...
- 08/13/16--02:30: _Astral Physics and ...
- 04/02/16--04:02: The Da Vinci Code
- Robert Langdon
- Jacques Saunière
- Sophie Neveu
- Bezu Fache
- Manuel Aringarosa
- Soeur Sandrine
- André Vernet
- Leigh Teabing
- Rémy Legaludec
- Jérôme Collet
- Marie Chauvel Saint-Clair
- Pamela Gettum
- The Holy Grail is not a physical chalice, but a woman, namely Mary Magdalene, who carried the bloodline of Christ.
- The Old French expression for the Holy Grail, San gréal, actually is a play on Sang réal, which literally means "royal blood" in Old French.
- The Grail relics consist of the documents that testify to the bloodline, as well as the actual bones of Mary Magdalene.
- The Grail relics of Mary Magdalene were hidden by the Priory of Sion in a secret crypt, perhaps beneath Rosslyn Chapel.
- The Church has suppressed the truth about Mary Magdalene and the Jesus bloodline for 2000 years. This is principally because they fear the power of the sacred feminine in and of itself and because this would challenge the primacy of Saint Peter as an apostle.
- Mary Magdalene was of royal descent (through the Jewish House of Benjamin) and was the wife of Jesus, of the House of David. That she was a prostitute was slander invented by the Church to obscure their true relationship. At the time of the Crucifixion, she was pregnant. After the Crucifixion, she fled to Gaul, where she was sheltered by the Jews of Marseille. She gave birth to a daughter, named Sarah. The bloodline of Jesus and Mary Magdalene became the Merovingian dynasty of France.
- The existence of the bloodline was the secret that was contained in the documents discovered by the Crusaders after they conquered Jerusalem in 1099 (see Kingdom of Jerusalem). The Priory of Sion and the Knights Templar were organized to keep the secret.
- Leonardo was a member of the Priory of Sion and knew the secret of the Grail. The secret is in fact revealed in The Last Supper, in which no actual chalice is present at the table. The figure seated next to Christ is not a man, but a woman, his wife Mary Magdalene. Most reproductions of the work are from a later alteration that obscured her obvious female characteristics.
- The androgyny of the Mona Lisa reflects the sacred union of male and female implied in the holy union of Jesus and Mary Magdalene. Such parity between the cosmic forces of masculine and feminine has long been a deep threat to the established power of the Church. The name Mona Lisa is actually an anagram for "Amon L'Isa", referring to the father and mother gods of Ancient Egyptian religion (namely Amun and Isis).
- The book was parodied by Adam Roberts and Toby Clements with the books The Va Dinci Cod, and The Asti Spumante Code, respectively, both in 2005.
- A 2005 telemovie spin-off of the Australian television series Kath & Kim parodied the film version as Da Kath and Kim Code in 2005.
- The 2006 BBC program Dead Ringers parodied The Da Vinci Code, calling it the "Da Rolf Harris Code".
- South African political cartoonistZapiro published a 2006 book collection of his strips entitled Da Zuma Code, which parodies the former deputy presidentJacob Zuma.
- A 2006 independent film named The Norman Rockwell Code parodied the book and film. Instead of that of a curator in the Louvre, the murder is that of a curator at the Norman Rockwell Museum in Stockbridge, Massachusetts.
- The DiCaprio Code, a 2006, seven-part animated series by Movies.com and Scrapmation.
- The book was parodied in the 2007 South Park episode "Fantastic Easter Special" and Robert Rankin's novel The Da-da-de-da-da Code.
- The characters Lucy and Silas are parodied in the 2007 film Epic Movie, which begins with a scene similar to the opening of The Da Vinci Code, with Silas chasing the orphan Lucy.
- Szyfr Jana Matejki (Jan Matejko's Cipher) is a 2007 Polish parody by Dariusz Rekosz. A sequel, Ko(s)miczna futryna: Szyfr Jana Matejki II (Co[s]mic Door-frame: Jan Matejko's Cipher II), was released in 2008. The main character is inspector Józef Świenty, who tries to solve The Greatest Secret of Mankind (Największa Tajemnica Ludzkości) – parentage of Piast dynasty.
- The book was parodied in the 2008 American Dad! episode "Black Mystery Month", in which Stan Smith searches for the controversial truth that Mary Todd Lincoln invented peanut butter.
- In 2008, it was parodied in the second series of That Mitchell and Webb Look as "The Numberwang Code", a trailer for a fictional film based on a recurring sketch on the show.
- The book's plot is parodied in "The Duh-Vinci Code", an episode of the animated TV series Futurama.
- The book was parodied in the Mad episode "Da Grinchy Code / Duck", in which the greatest movie minds try to solve the mystery of the Grinch.
- The book's theme of conspiracy theories is parodied in the 2007 MC Solaar single "Da Vinci Claude".
- The Da Vinci Code (1st ed.), US: Doubleday, April 2003, ISBN 0-385-50420-9 .
- The Da Vinci Code (spec illustr ed.), Doubleday, November 2, 2004, ISBN 0-385-51375-5 (as of January 2006, has sold 576,000 copies).
- The Da Vinci Code, UK: Corgi Adult, April 2004, ISBN 0-552-14951-9 .
- The Da Vinci Code (illustr ed.), UK: Bantam, October 2, 2004, ISBN 0-593-05425-3 .
- The Da Vinci Code (trade paperback), US/CA: Anchor, March 2006 .
- The da Vinci code (paperback), Anchor, March 28, 2006 , 5 million copies.
- The da Vinci code (paperback) (special illustrated ed.), Broadway, March 28, 2006 , released 200,000 copies.
- Goldsman, Akiva (May 19, 2006), The Da Vinci Code Illustrated Screenplay: Behind the Scenes of the Major Motion Picture, Howard, Ron; Brown, Dan introd, Doubleday, Broadway , the day of the film's release. Including film stills, behind-the-scenes photos and the full script. 25,000 copies of the hardcover, and 200,000 of the paperback version.
- Bible conspiracy theory
- Christian feminism
- Constantinian shift
- False title
- List of best-selling books
- Smithy code
- The Jesus Scroll
- Mona Lisa replicas and reinterpretations
- The Rozabal Line
- Wyat, Edward (November 4, 2005). "'Da Vinci Code' Losing Best-Seller Status". The New York Times.
- "New novel from Dan Brown due this fall". San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved 2011-01-04.
- Minzesheimer, Bob (December 11, 2003). "'Code' deciphers interest in religious history". USA Today. Retrieved 2010-05-25.
- Ford, Marcia. "Da Vinci Debunkers: Spawns of Dan Brown's Bestseller". FaithfulReader. Archived from the original on 2004-05-27. Retrieved 2015-04-29.
- "History vs The Da Vinci Code". Retrieved 2009-02-03.
- Kelleher, Ken; Kelleher, Carolyn (April 24, 2006). "The Da Vinci Code" (FAQs). Dan Brown. Archived from the original on 2008-03-25. Retrieved 2009-02-03.
- "Fiction". History vs The Da Vinci Code. Retrieved 2009-02-03.
Sibly, WA; Sibly, MD (1998), The History of the Albigensian Crusade: Peter of les Vaux-de-Cernay's "Historia Albigensis", Boydell, ISBN 0-85115-658-4,
Further, in their secret meetings they said that the Christ who was born in the earthly and visible Bethlehem and crucified at Jerusalem was 'evil', and that Mary Magdalene was his concubine – and that she was the woman taken in adultery who is referred to in the Scriptures; the 'good' Christ, they said, neither ate nor drank nor assumed the true flesh and was never in this world, except spiritually in the body of Paul. I have used the term 'the earthly and visible Bethlehem' because the heretics believed there is a different and invisible earth in which – according to some of them – the 'good' Christ was born and crucified.
- O'Neill, Tim (2006), "55. Early Christianity and Political Power", History versus the Da Vinci Code, retrieved February 16, 2009 .
- O'Neill, Tim (2006), "55. Nag Hammadi and the Dead Sea Scrolls", History versus the Da Vinci Code, retrieved February 16, 2009 .
Arendzen, John Peter (1913), "Docetae", Catholic Encyclopedia5, New York: Robert Appleton,
The idea of the unreality of Christ's human nature was held by the oldest Gnostic sects [...] Docetism, as far as at present known, [was] always an accompaniment of Gnosticism or later of Manichaeism.
- Lane, Anthony (May 29, 2006). "Heaven Can Wait". The New Yorker.
- Miller, Laura (December 29, 2004). "The Da Vinci crock". Salon.com. Retrieved 2009-05-15.
- Steyn, Mark (May 10, 2006) "The Da Vinci Code: bad writing for Biblical illiterates". Maclean's.
- Maslin, Janet (March 17, 2003). "Spinning a Thriller From a Gallery at the Louvre".
- Lazarus, David (April 6, 2003). "'Da Vinci Code' a heart-racing thriller". San Francisco Chronicle.
- Zanganeh, Lila Azam. "Umberto Eco, The Art of Fiction No. 197". The Paris Review. Summer 2008, Number 185. Retrieved 2012-04-27.
- Yeoman, William (June 30, 2010), "Vampires trump wizards as readers pick their best"(PDF), The West Australian .
- "Famed author takes on Kansas". LJWorld. October 7, 2005. Retrieved 2011-01-04.
- "3x12", QI (episode transcript) .
- "Interview with Douglas Adams Continuum". SE: Douglas Adams. Retrieved 2011-01-04.
- "Stephen King address, University of Maine". Archive. Archived from the original on 2007-10-13. Retrieved 2011-01-04.
- Sorkin, Aaron (December 30, 2010). "Movie Review: The Da Vinci Code (2006)". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-01-04.
- "The Dan Brown code", Language Log, University of Pennsylvania (also follow other links at the bottom of that page)
- Ebert, Roger. "Roger Ebert's review". Sun times. Retrieved 2011-01-04.
- "Author Brown 'did not plagiarise'", BBC News, August 6, 2005
- "Delays to latest Dan Brown novel", BBC News, April 21, 2006
- "Judge creates own Da Vinci code". BBC News. April 27, 2006. Retrieved 2009-09-13.
- "Authors who lost 'Da Vinci Code' copying case to mount legal appeal",[dead link]Associated Press, July 12, 2006
- "Judge rejects claims in ‘Da Vinci’ suit". MSNBC. MSN. April 7, 2006. Retrieved 2009-02-03.
- Page, Jeremy. "Now Russian sues Brown over his Da Vinski Code", The Sunday Times, April 12, 2006
- Grachev, Guerman (13 April 2006), "Russian scientist to sue best-selling author Dan Brown over 'Da Vinci Code' plagiarism", Pravda (RU) .
- "World editions of The Da Vinci Code", Secrets (official site), Dan Brown .
- "Judge rejects claims in ‘Da Vinci’ suit". MSNBC. MSN. April 7, 2006. Retrieved 2009-02-03.
- Megan Murphy (April 6, 2006). "`Da Vinci Code' Lawsuit Lifts Sales Before Judgment". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2013-10-11.
- "Harry Potter still magic for book sales", Arts, CBC, January 9, 2006, archived from the original on 2007-02-28 .
- "The Da Vinci Code (2006)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 2006-12-16.
- Pullum, Geoffrey K."The Dan Brown code." (Archive)
- Schneider-Mayerson, Matthew. "The Dan Brown Phenomenon: Conspiracism in Post-9/11 Popular Fiction." Radical History Review 111 (2011): 194-201
- Mysteries of Rennes-le-Château .
- The da Vinci code (official website), Dan Brown .
- The da Vinci code (official website), UK: Dan Brown .
- Walsh, David (May 2006), "The Da Vinci Code, novel and film, and ‘countercultural’ myth", WSWS (review)
- The Da Vinci Code and Textual Criticism: A Video Response to the Novel, Rochester Bible .
- The Da Vinci Code at Goodreads
- 04/02/16--04:07: Herne the Hunter
- Sometime a keeper here in Windsor Forest,
- Doth all the winter-time, at still midnight,
- Walk round about an oak, with great ragg'd horns;
- And there he blasts the tree, and takes the cattle,
- And makes milch-kine yield blood, and shakes a chain
- In a most hideous and dreadful manner.
- You have heard of such a spirit, and well you know
- The superstitious idle-headed eld
- Receiv'd, and did deliver to our age,
- This tale of Herne the Hunter for a truth.
- — William Shakespeare, The Merry Wives of Windsor
- Arrigo Boito, composing a libretto for Verdi's opera Falstaff by improvising upon materials in Merry Wives and Henry IV, built the moonlit last act set in Windsor Great Park around a prank revenge played upon the amorous Falstaff by masqueraders disguised as spirits and the spectral "Black Huntsman", in whom Herne the Hunter is recognisable. Carlo Prospero Defranceschi wrote a similar libretto for composer Antonio Salieri that specifically mentions Herne.
- Ralph Vaughan Williams' opera Sir John in Love, an adaptation of Shakespeare's Merry wives, feature an impersonation of Herne the Hunter to misguide Falstaff.
- "The Legend of Herne the Hunter" was part of Sir Arthur Sullivan's ballet Victoria and Merrie England of 1897, which portrayed various scenes from British folklore and history.
- In the light opera Merrie England by Sir Edward German (1902), the librettist Basil Hood introduces another impersonation of Herne as a device to induce a change of heart in Queen Elizabeth I.
- One of the earliest recordings by British progressive rock band Marillion is an instrumental song titled "Herne the Hunter" based on the legend.
- Herne is a track on the 1984 LP "Legend" by Clannad.
- Herne the Hunter features in the lyrics of the song "English Fire" by Cradle of Filth on their album Nymphetamine.
- On the 2008 Album, "Blessings" by S.J. Tucker a song is titled "Hymn To Herne.
- Singer-songwriter Kenny Klein has written and recorded two different songs about the legend of Herne, one of which, "Herne's Oak", is featured on the soundtrack of the documentary "Deep Down: A Story From The Heart" by Jen Gilomen and Sally Rubin.
- In 2011 the pagan metal band Herne released an album called Face of the Hunter, "inspired by the 1980s TV series 'Robin of Sherwood'"; the album introduction describes the famous falling whole tone motif that occurs in each episode.
- "Herne" is the feature song for the mythy folk musician, Lily Herne, in her debut album "HART" (released August 2012).
- William Harrison Ainsworth's Victorian romance of Windsor Castle featured Herne and popularised him.
- Herne the Hunter appears in Susan Cooper's The Dark Is Rising sequence where he plays a key part in the end of the book by the same name and the series' ending Silver on the Tree.
- Herne the Hunted is a parody of Herne the Hunter in Terry Pratchett's Discworld series. He is a small god and the patron of those animals destined to end up as a "brief, crunchy squeak."
- Herne the Hunter is a key figure in Ruth Nichols' children's novel The Marrow of the World. His character has no supernatural attributes.
- English Poet LaureateJohn Masefield included Herne the Hunter as a benevolent 'spirit of the woodlands' in his children's book The Box of Delights.
- Herne made an appearance in the Bitterbynde trilogy by Cecilia Dart-Thornton. In these books Herne is portrayed as a powerful "unseelie wight" by the name of Huon who leads his hellhounds in search of the main protagonist.
- Herne the Hunter appears as a supporting character in Simon Green's Nightside series. He actually appears on the cover of "Hex and the City" (Book 4), although his role in the actual novel is rather inconsequential.
- Herne the Hunter is one of the main antagonists in C. E. Murphy's Urban Shaman.
- Herne is the Deer God in the book Fire Bringer, by David Clement-Davies
- Herne the Hunter, also named as Cenneros, is a character in Michael Scott's series of The Alchemist, the Immortal Secrets of Nicholas Flammel.
- In Jim Butcher's Dresden Files series, in the book Cold Days (novel), the Erlking is referred to as "Lord Herne."
- Herne the Hunter is a character in the book "Hunted" (novel) which is part of the series "The Iron Druid Chronicles" (Book 6) by, oddly enough, Kevin Hearne.
- Herne the Hunter is the Monster in the book "A Monster Calls" written by Patrick Ness.
- Herne the Hunter of the Mers and consort of the queen, also known by the title "Starbuck", in the 1980 novel The Snow Queen by Joan D. Vinge. Won the Hugo award for best novel in 1981 and also nominated for the Nebula award that same year.
- Herne the Hunter is one of the major arcana cards in Chrysalis Tarot.
- Herne was incorporated into the Robin Hood legend in the 1984 television series, Robin of Sherwood. In it, Robin of Loxley is called by Herne to take on the mantle of "the Hooded Man", which Robin's father had predicted beforehand. It is Herne who encourages Loxley to become 'Robin the Hood' and to use his band of outlaws to fight for good against the evil Norman oppressors. Herne's appearance bears a very strong resemblance to the illustrations that previously depicted him, in that an otherwise unnamed shaman character, portrayed by actor John Abineri, dons a stag's head and tells Robin that "when the horned one possesses [him]", he becomes the spirit of the forest. Herne featured in 17 of the 26 episodes of the series and was shown to have various magical abilities. The series' adaptation of the Robin Hood mythos has become extremely influential and many of its brand-new elements have since been reinterpreted in a manner of different ways in nearly all of the subsequent films and television series of the legend.
- Herne the Hunter is also featured as a guiding character in John Masefield's novel The Box of Delights and the 1984 BBC TV adaptation.
- Herne is a forest spirit in issue No. 26 of the Green Arrow comic book series.
- In 2010, Herne the Hunter appeared in the Big Finish Doctor Who audio adventure Leviathan, a "lost" story from the Colin Baker years (an unproduced script from the 1980s).
- In Lesley Livingston's 2008 debut novel, Wondrous Strange, Herne is an ancient hunter and former lover of Queen Mabh who now owns the Tavern on the Green in Central Park, New York City.
- A person playing Herne the Hunter appears in comic book Hellboy: The Wild Hunt.
- A deer-headed huntsman named Herne appears in Ursula Vernon's Hugo-award-winning webcomic Digger.
- The Danish band Wuthering Heights published a song called "Longing for the Woods Part III: Herne's Prophecy" on their album Far From The Madding Crowd in 2004, and Erik Ravn also said "Herne protect you!" at the end of their live show at the ProgPower festival in Atlanta, Georgia in the summer of 2004.
- Herne was featured in an independent British horror movie entitled "Call of the Hunter" produced in 2009. In the summer of 1962, three teenagers went on a camping trip into Herongate Woods. What started out as a fun trip ended in a nightmare as one of the boys met with a tragic death. The other two escaped, but could only relay a tail of a hooded and horned man who terrorized them. Forty years later, Caroline (one of the survivors) meets with a mysterious and tragic death. Ralph now the only survivor returns to the scene of the original incident with a documentary crew. As he relives the unfortunate episode the past catches up with him as the hooded man returns and the spirit of the forest is awoken with chilling consequences.
- The Bloodmoon expansion for the fantasy computer RPG The Elder Scrolls III: Morrowind includes a key character called Hircine the Hunter, a horned deity clearly heavily influenced by Herne the Hunter and Cernunnos.
- Herne is mentioned and used as a character in the book Hunted by Kevin Hearne. Hunted is the 6th book in the Iron Druid Chronicles.
- Two Magic: The Gathering cards; Master of the Hunt and Master of the Wild Hunt are direct references to Herne.
- In the Wild Cards series of books, Dylan Hardesty is a mutant who becomes Herne the Huntsman at night, an 8-feet-tall stagman with the power to induce rage and bloodlust in all those who listen to the call of his horn, and to summon the Gabriel Hounds.
- Ireland, Samuel (1792). Picturesque Views on the River Thames.
- R. Lowe Thompson, The History of the Devil 1929 p. 134
- The History of the Devil by R. Lowe Thompson, 1920, page. 133
- 'Simple Wicca: A simple wisdom book' by Michele Morgan, Conari, 2000, ISBN 1-57324-199-7, ISBN 978-1-57324-199-1
- Ronald Hutton, The Pagan Religions of the Ancient British Isles: Their Nature and Legacy, People of the Mist (chpt 5)
- Shipley, Joseph Twadell. 'Dictionary of Early English'. Philosophical Library, 1955. Page 330.
- Bosworth, Joseph.A Dictionary of the Anglo-Saxon Language, Containing the Accentuation—the Grammatical Inflections—the Irregular Words Referred to Their Themes—the Parallel Terms, from the Other Gothic Languages—the Meaning of the Anglo-Saxon in English and Latin—and Copious English and Latin Indexes ... Published by Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman, 1838. Page 189.
- Petry, Michael John (1972). Herne the Hunter: A Berkshire Legend. William Smith (Booksellers) Ltd. ISBN 978-0-9500218-8-1.
- Matthews, J. The Quest for the Green Man. Published by Quest Books, 2001. ISBN 0-8356-0825-5, ISBN 978-0-8356-0825-1. Page 116
- Spence, Lewis. Hero Tales and Legends of the Rhine. BiblioBazaar, LLC, 2007. ISBN 1-4346-2755-1, ISBN 978-1-4346-2755-1. page 68
- De Berard Mills. Bardeen, C.W.'The Tree of Mythology, Its Growth and Fruitage: Genesis of The Nursery Tale, Saws of Folk-lore, etc'. 1889
- De Vries, Eric. 'Hedge-Rider: Witches and the Underworld'. Pendraig Publishing, 2008. ISBN 0-9796168-7-5, ISBN 978-0-9796168-7-7
- Greenwood, Susan.' The Nature of Magic: An Anthropology of Consciousness'. Berg Publishers, 2005. ISBN 1-84520-095-0, ISBN 978-1-84520-095-4. Page 120
- Hedley, Windsor Castle, 93.
- Jeffrey Theis, The "ill kill'd" Deer: Poaching and Social Order in The Merry Wives of Windsor, Texas Studies in Literature and Language 43.1 (2001) 46–73.
- Fitch, Eric (1994). In Search of Herne the Hunter. Capall Bann Publishing. ISBN 978-1-898307-23-5.
- Royal Berkshire History: Beware the Ghostly Hunt of Herne the Hunter
- Mystical Worldwide Web: The Legend of Herne the Hunter
- Independent Movie: Call of the Hunter (the legend of Herne the Hunter)
- IMDB: Call of the Hunter (movie)
- Ghosts in Bengali culture
- Ghosts in English-speaking cultures
- Ghosts in Spanish-speaking cultures
- Slavic folklore
- 04/02/16--04:28: World's 10 Most Mysterious Books
- 04/03/16--03:35: Paulo Coelho
- "The Alchemist (Coelho) Background". Retrieved 16 November 2013.
- Thind, Jessi An Interview with Paulo CoelhoMSN Arabia
- Schaertl, Markia The Boy from Ipanema: Interview with Paulo Coelho reposted on Paulo Coelho's Blog. December 20, 2007.
- Doland, Angela Brazilian author Coelho thrives on contradictions and extremesOakland Tribune republished on BNet. May 20, 2007.[dead link]
- Day, Elizabeth A mystery even to himselfThe Daily Telegraph. June 14, 2005.
- An interview with Brazilian writer, Paulo Coelho: Everybody is a MagusLife Positive. July 2000.
- Life and Letters: The MagusThe New Yorker. May 7, 2007.
- BiographyOfficial Site of Paulo Coelho.
- Teacher's Guide to The AlchemistHarper Collins Publisher.
- Reiss, Valerie Paulo Coelho Dances with AngelsBeliefnet.
- Interview with Paulo CoelhoBBC World Service Book Club. December 2004.
- A Brief History of the BookSaint Jordi Asociados
- Film to be made of Coelho's 'AlchemistAFP. May 19, 2008.
- "Paulo Coelho's Blog". Paulocoelhoblog.com. 2011-10-08. Retrieved 2011-11-11.
- Gamerman, Ellen (14 August 2014). "Paulo Coelho, Fiction's Digital Alchemist". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2014-12-19.
- "Picture Tree Acquires Paulo Coelho Biopic ‘The Pilgrim’". PMC. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
- Sant Jordi Asociados, the literary agency that represents Paulo Coelho world wide
- Paulo Coelho -- The Alchemy of Pilgrimage Interview On Being with Krista Tippett August 14, 2014
- Paulo Coelho and Ruthie DiTucci interview on SyndicatedNews.NET November 10, 2010
- Works by or about Paulo Coelho in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
- Paulo Coelho official blog
- Appearance on Desert Island Discs, BBC-Radio July 4, 3 2005
- Paulo Coelho on Goodreads
- Interview given to the podcast 'Jovem Nerd'– October 15, 2010
- Books by Paulo Coelho
- Paulo Coelho's Official Wattpad Profile
- The Manifest of Krig-há (1974)
- Theater For Education (1974)
- Hell Archives (1982)
- Practical Manual of Vampirism (1986)
- The Pilgrimage (1987)
- The Alchemist (1988)
- Brida (1990)
- The Greatest Gift (1991)
- The Valkyries (1992)
- Maktub (1994)
- By the River Piedra I Sat Down and Wept (1994)
- The Fifth Mountain (1996)
- Love Letters from a Prophet (1997)
- Manual of the Warrior of Light (1997)
- Veronika Decides to Die (1998)
- Essential Words (1998)
- The Devil and Miss Prym (2000)
- Fathers, Sons and Grandsons (2001)
- Eleven Minutes (2003)
- And on the Seventh Day (2004)
- The Genie and the Roses (2004)
- Journeys (2004)
- The Zahir (2005)
- Revived Paths (2005)
- Like the Flowing River (2006)
- The Witch of Portobello (2006)
- Life: Selected Quotations (2007)
- The Winner Stands Alone (2008)
- Aleph (2010)
- Manuscript Found in Accra (2012)
- Adultery (2014)
- The Wizard (2008)
- 04/04/16--03:40: Snakes and Ladders....an Ancient Indian "Esoteric" Connection...
- "Chutes and Ladders - Snakes and Ladders". About.com.
- Pritchard, D. B. (1994), "Snakes and Ladders", The Family Book of Games, Brockhampton Press, p. 162, ISBN 1-86019-021-9
- Althoen, S. C.; King, L.; Schilling, K. (March 1993). "How Long Is a Game of Snakes and Ladders?". The Mathematical Gazette (The Mathematical Association) 77 (478): 71–76. doi:10.2307/3619261. JSTOR 3619261.
- Augustyn (2004), pp. 27–28
- Bornet, Philippe; Burger, Maya (2012). Religions in Play: Games, Rituals, and Virtual Worlds]. Theologischer Verlag Zürich. p. 94. ISBN 9783290220105.
- "Playing with fate and free will". Devdutt Pattanaik. September 17, 2007.
- Bell, R. C. (1983). "Snakes and Ladders". The Boardgame Book. Exeter Books. pp. 134–35. ISBN 0-671-06030-9.
- Masters, James. "Moksha-Patamu (Snakes and Ladders)." The Online Guide to Traditional Games. N.p., n.d. Web.
- Topsfield, Andrew (2006). The art of play. Board and card games of India. Marg Publications. ISBN 9788185026763.
- Slesin, Suzanne. At 50, Still Climbing, Still Sliding New York Times 15 July 1993
- "Snakes and Ladders". Elliott Avedon Museum & Archive of Games.
- Sari, Candrika Citra, and Siti Muniroh. "Developing Snake and Ladder Game Board as a Media to Teach English Vocabulary to Elementary School Students." SKRIPSI Jurusan Sastra Inggris-Fakultas Sastra UM (2012). Web.
- Yuliana, Ita. "The Implementation of Snakes And Ladders Game to Improve Students' Vocabulary Among the Fifth Grade Students of SD N Bapangsari in the Academic Year 2012/2013." SCRIPTA - Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris 1.2 (2013). Web.
- Siegler, Robert S., and Geetha B. Ramani. "Playing Linear Numerical Board Games Promotes Low-income Children’s Numerical Development." Developmental Science 11.5 (2008): 655-61. Web.
- Morrison, Sarah. "Battling Climate-change: How Snakes and Ladders Could Save the Planet." The Independent, 14 Apr. 2013. Web.
- Audet, Daniel (Dec 2012). "Probabilités et espérances dans le jeu de serpents et échelles à deux joueurs"(PDF). Bulletin AMQ.
- "Back to square one", The Phrase Finder, Gary Martin.
- Hugh-Jones, E. M. (June 1952). "The American Economy, 1860–1940. by A. J. Youngson Brown". The Economic Journal (Wiley) 62 (246): 411–414. doi:10.2307/2227038. JSTOR 2227038.
- Rushdie, Salman (2006). Midnight's Children. Random House. p. 160.
- Berlekamp, Elwyn R; Conway, John H; Guy, Richard K (1982). Winning Ways for your Mathematical Plays. Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-091150-7.
- Shimkhada, Deepak (1983) "A Preliminary Study of the Game of Karma in India, Nepal, and Tibet" in Artibus Asiae 44:4, pp. 308–22.
- Topsfield, Andrew (1985) "The Indian Game of Snakes and Ladders" in Artibus Asiae 46:3, pp. 203–26.
- Topsfield, Andrew (2006) "Snakes and Ladders in India: Some Further Discoveries" in Artibus Asiae 66:1, pp. 143–79.
- Chutes and Ladders Hasbro's official page
- Snakes and Ladders at BoardGameGeek
- Leela, the Game of KnowledgeHindu version
- Shatranj Irfani Indian Sufi version from the 19th century
- "Analysis of Chutes and Ladders" by DataGenetics
- "The Chutes and Ladders Game" mathematical analysis by Dave Rusin of Northern Illinois University
- "Dial up some obscure stats for the Chutes and Ladders game" Perl software to generate statistics
- Jain version of Snakes and Ladders explained in an interactive demonstration hosted by the Victoria and Albert Museum
- Axis & Allies
- Barrel of Monkeys
- Bop It
- Candy Land
- Catch Phrase
- Chutes & Ladders
- Connect 4
- Crocodile Dentist
- Designer's World
- Duel Masters
- Dungeons & Dragons
- Gator Golf
- Girl Talk
- Guess Who?
- Hi Ho! Cherry-O
- Hungry Hungry Hippos
- Lazer Tag
- Magic: The Gathering
- Mall Madness
- Mouse Trap
- Mystery Date
- Nerf Blaster
- Scrabble (U.S. and Canada)
- The Game of Life
- Trivial Pursuit
- Are You Smarter Than a 5th Grader?
- Idaten Jump
- Jurassic Park
- Strawberry Shortcake
- Sid the Science Kid
- The Simpsons
- Wolverine and the X-Men
- X-Men Origins: Wolverine
- 04/04/16--03:53: Eyes Wide Shut
- 5Themes and interpretation
- 9External links
- Tom Cruise as Dr. William "Bill" Harford
- Nicole Kidman as Alice Harford
- Sydney Pollack as Victor Ziegler
- Marie Richardson as Marion Nathanson
- Todd Field as Nick Nightingale
- Sky du Mont as Sandor Szavost
- Rade Šerbedžija as Mr. Milich
- Vinessa Shaw as Domino
- Fay Masterson as Sally
- Leelee Sobieski as Milich's daughter
- Alan Cumming as Hotel desk clerk
- Leon Vitali as Red Cloak
- Julienne Davis as Amanda "Mandy" Curran
- Thomas Gibson as Carl Thomas
- Madison Eginton as Helena Harford
- Golden Globes Award for Best Original Score – Motion Picture – Jocelyn Pook (nominated)
Venice Film Festival
- Filmcritica "Bastone Bianco" Award – Stanley Kubrick (Won)
French Syndicate of Cinema Critics
- Best Foreign Film – Stanley Kubrick (Won)
Chicago Film Critics Association
- Best Director – Stanley Kubrick (nominated)
- Best Cinematography – Stanley Kubrick and Larry Smith (nominated)
- Best Original score – Jocelyn Pook (nominated)
Costume Designers Guild
- Excellence in Costume Design for Film – Contemporary – Marit Allen (nominated)
- Best Performance by an Actress in a Motion Picture, Drama – Nicole Kidman (nominated)
- Best Cinematography – Larry Smith (nominated)
- Best Sound – Paul Conway and Edward Tise (nominated)
- Best Foreign Film (Meilleur film étranger) – Stanley Kubrick (nominated)
Online Film Critics Society
- Best Director – Stanley Kubrick (nominated)
- Best Cinematography – Larry Smith (nominated)
- Best Original score – Jocelyn Pook (nominated)
- "EYES WIDE SHUT". British Board of Film Classification. Retrieved September 29, 2013.
- "Eyes Wide Shut (1999)". British Film Institute. Retrieved December 2, 2014.
- "Eyes Wide Shut (1999)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
- Jan Harlan, Stanley Kubrick: A Life in Pictures
- Svetkey, Benjamin (July 23, 1999). "Behind the scenes of Eyes Wide Shut". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 2012-10-24.
- Schickel, Richard (August 9, 1999). "All Eyes On Them". Time. Retrieved 2012-10-24.
- Rasmussen 2005, p. 222.
- Herr, Michael. CLASSIC HOLLYWOOD: Kubrick, Vanity Fair (August 1999)
- Cocks 2004, p. 29
- Raphael 2000, p. 59.
- Lowenberg, Peter. "Freud, Schnitzler, and Eyes Wide Shut," in Depth of field: Stanley Kubrick, film, and the uses of history (2006), pp. 255–279.
- Schnitzler, Arthur; Fredric Raphael (1999). Dream Story. Penguin. p. xiii. ISBN 0-14-118224-5.
- Rasmussen 2005, p. 331
- Rosenbaum, Jonathan. "In Dreams Begin Responsibilities"; in Depth of field: Stanley Kubrick, film, and the uses of history (2006), pp. 245–254
- "Eyes Wide Shut original screenplay". Godamongdirectors.com. Retrieved 2014-08-22.
- "Rainer J. Kaus, ''Notes on Eyes Wide Shut''". Clas.ufl.edu. Retrieved 2014-08-22.
- Chion & 2002 p.21.
- Rasmussen 2005, p. 332
- Cocks 2004, p. 146.
- Interview: Tom Cruise on Stanley Kubrick. Eyes Wide Shut Blu-Ray (2007): Warner Bros Home Entertainment. 1999.
- Keitel's Heartbreak Hotel. Books.google.com. 1997-04-21. Retrieved 2014-08-22.
- Dretzka, Gary (April 27, 1999). "Hyper 'Existenz'". Chicago Tribune.
- Karger, Dave (Oct 17, 1997). "Closing Their 'Eyes Wide Shut'". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 2012-10-27.
- Guinness World Records 2001. 2000. p. 93. ISBN 0-85112-102-0.
- Adams 2000, p. 24.
- Adams 2000, p. 16.
- Reeves, Tony (2001). The Worldwide Guide to Movie Locations. Chicago Review Press. p. 70. ISBN 1-55652-432-3.
- Pizzella, Stephen (28 October 1999). "A Sword in the Bed". American Cinematographer (33).
- Ciment & 2003 p. 177.
- Eyes Wide Shut, Senses of Cinema
- Ruhlmann, William. "Eyes Wide Shut". AllMusic. Retrieved 2012-10-22.
- Powrie, Phil; Stilwell, Robynn Jeananne (2006). Changing Tunes: The Use of Pre-Existing Music in Film. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 7. ISBN 0-7546-5137-1.
- Wierzbicki, James (2012). Music, Sound and Filmmakers: Sonic Style in Cinema. Routledge. pp. 147–148. ISBN 0-415-89894-3.
- Arnold, Ben. The Liszt Companion Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002. Pg. 169
- "Stanley Kubrick's swan song: Eyes wide shut". PEP Web. Retrieved 2012-07-02.
- Zwerin, Mike (1999-10-27). "Kubrick's Approval Sets Seal on Classical Crossover Success : Pook's Unique Musical Mix". International Herald Tribune. Retrieved 2012-11-12.
- Koppl, Rudy (1999). "Jocelyn Pook on EYES WIDE SHUT". Soundtrack Magazine18 (71).
- "Ears wide open". The Music Magazine. Retrieved 2012-07-02.
- "AHAD Gives Voice to Hindu Sentiments Against Eyes Wide Shut". American Hindus Against Defamation. Retrieved 2012-11-12.
- Press Trust of India (1999-08-09). "Warner Bros apologises to Hindus". The Times of India. Retrieved 2012-11-12.
- Castle, Robert (April 2002). "The Dharma Blues". Journal of Religion and Film6 (1).
- Powrie, Stillwell (2006) p.17
- "'Bad Bad Thing' Is Good Indeed for Isaak". The Los Angeles Times. 1999-07-26. Retrieved 2012-10-22.
- p. 397 Book published by Indiana University Press, 2005
- The film business newspaper Variety and the UKThe Guardian
- Anderson, Jeffrey M. (1999-07-16). "Combustible Celluloid Review – Eyes Wide Shut (1999)". Combustiblecelluloid.com. Retrieved 2015-05-24.
- "Blu-ray Review: Eyes Wide Shut | High-Def Digest". Bluray.highdefdigest.com. Retrieved 2012-07-02.
- "Eyes Wide Shut (1999)". AboutFilm.Com. Retrieved 2012-07-02.
- "Eyes Wide Shut". notcoming.com. 2010-03-14. Retrieved 2012-07-02.
- "Eyes Wide Shut Blu-ray". Blu-ray.com. Retrieved 2012-07-02.
- "Eyes Wide Shut Review". Movies.tvguide.com. Retrieved 2012-07-02.
- Keesey, Douglas (2001-06-22). "They Kill for Love – CineAction". HighBeam.com. Retrieved 2015-05-26.
- Koresky, Michael (2006-05-11). "Eyes Wide Shut". Reverse Shot. Retrieved 2015-05-26.
- "Eyes Wide Shut (Blu-ray) : DVD Talk Review of the Blu-ray". Dvdtalk.com. Retrieved 2012-07-02.
- Michael Koresky (Spring 2006). "Wake Up Call". Reverse Shot. Retrieved 15 December 2011.
- Falsetto, Mario (2001). Stanley Kubrick: a narrative and stylistic analysis. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 137. ISBN 9780275969745. See also the section on "Disappearing Film Grain" at 
- Janet Maslin (1999). "Film Review; Bedroom Odyssey". New York Times. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
- Rasmussen, Randy (2005). Stanley Kubrick: Seven Films Analyzed. McFarland. p. 333. ISBN 9780786421527.
- Lee Siegel. "What the critics failed to see in Kubrick's last film". Harper's. Retrieved 15 December 2011.
- Krieder, Tim. "Introducing Sociology"; in Depth of Field: Stanley Kubrick, Film, and the Uses of History (2006, pp. 280–297)
- Kaplan, Louise (2006). Cultures of fetishism. MacMillan. p. 61. ISBN 9781403969682.
- Duralde, Alonso (2010). Have Yourself a Movie Little Christmas. Limelight Editions. p. 33. ISBN 9780275969745.
- Sketches from Venetian history, Volume 2 byEdward Smedley 1837
- Porter, Darwin; Prince, Danforth. Frommer's Portable Venice.
- Novel ''The Venetian Mask'' by Rosalind Laker. Books.google.com. 2008-03-25. Retrieved 2014-08-22.
- "Magic of Venezia Mask Story". Magicofvenezia.com. Retrieved 2012-07-02.
- Nelson 2000, pp. 288–9.
- Symbols in Stanley Kubrick's Movie 'Eyes Wide Shut'– Carolin Ruwe – Google Boeken. Books.google.com. 2000-07-30. Retrieved 2012-07-02.
- Welkos, Robert W. (July 5, 1999). "The Way Kubrick Would Have Wanted". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2012-10-27.
- "Weekend Box Office: July 16–18, 1999 Weekend". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 2012-10-22.
- Natale, Richard (July 19, 1999). "'Eyes' Sees Its Way to Top Spot". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2012-10-22.
- "Eyes Wide Shut opens on top". BBC. July 19, 1999. Retrieved 2012-10-28.
- "Stanley Kubrick – Box Office History". The Numbers. Retrieved 2012-11-09.
- King, Susan (June 12, 2001). "Remembering a Difficult Genius". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2012-11-09.
- "Stars flock to Kubrick premiere". BBC. 3 September 1999.
- "FILM: BOX OFFICE". The Independent (London). 1999-09-19.
- "September 17, 1999 Rank". British Film Institute. the25thframe. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
- "Eyes Wide Shut (1999)". British Film Institute. the25thframe. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
- Woods, Mark (1999-12-08). "'Matrix' puts WB Int'l over $1 bil for the year". Variety. Retrieved 2012-11-09.
- "Eyes Wide Shut Reviews". Metacritic. Retrieved November 24, 2011.
- ""Kubrick's Definitive Film & Haunting Final Masterpiece" and 1999's Most Talked About Film Debuts on VHS and DVD" (Press release). Warner Bros. Home Entertainment. February 24, 2000. Retrieved 2012-11-09.
- Lundin, Leigh (25 July 2010). "Erotic Mystery Thrillers". sex-n-violence. Criminal Brief.
- "EYES WIDE SHUT What the critics failed to see in Kubrick's last film". Indelibleinc.com. Retrieved 2012-07-02.
- "For Movie Folks Who Considered Burning Down The Ratings Board When The Adjustment Was Enuf". Movie City News. 26 January 2006. Archived from the original on 24 December 2007. Retrieved 15 April 2008.
- "Review: Eyes Wide Shut". Reelviews.net. 1999-03-07. Retrieved 2012-07-02.
- "'Eyes Wide Shut': Danger and Desire in a Haunting Bedroom Odyssey". The New York Times.
- Ebert and Roeper
- Ciment & 2003 p. viii.
- "The 100 Best Films of the 1990s". Slantmagazine.com. Retrieved 2014-08-22.
- "Eyes Wide Shut". Hollywood Foreign Press Association. Retrieved 2009-10-14.
- Meaux Saint Marc, Francoise (8 February 2000). "Eyes Wide Shut is French critics' best foreign pic". Screen Daily. Retrieved 2012-11-17.
- Costume Designers Guild Awards (2000)
- "2000 Golden Satellite Award Nominees". International Press Academy. Archived from the original on 2000-06-11. Retrieved 2012-09-11.
- "2000 César" (in French). Académie des arts et techniques du cinéma. Retrieved 2012-09-11.
- 1999 Awards (3rd Annual) Comments: No Comments (2014-01-21). "1999 Awards". Ofcs.org. Retrieved 2014-08-22.
- McCutcheon, David (2007-08-03). "Kubrick Overload!". IGN. Retrieved 2014-08-22.
- DVDTalk.com – news, reviews, bargains, and discussion forum. "On Kubrick – A Talk With Kubrick Documentarian Jan Harlan". Dvdtalk.com. Retrieved 2014-08-22.
- "Jan Harlan Keeps His Eyes Wide Open On New Ideas | Times Square New York City". Timessquare.com. 2007-11-07. Retrieved 2012-07-02.
- "Kubrick says Cruise and Kidman ruined EWS".
- Interview: Todd Field Part 2 – /FILM[dead link]
- "littleroom comments on Stanley Kubrick's daughter Katharina Kubrick, and grandson Joe. AMA". Reddit.com. 2012-11-13. Retrieved 2014-08-22.
- "seluropnek comments on Stanley Kubrick's daughter Katharina Kubrick, and grandson Joe. AMA". Reddit.com. 2012-11-13. Retrieved 2014-08-22.
- "Critics Assail Ratings Board Over 'Eyes Wide Shut'". The New York Times.
- Roger Ebert's review of Eyes Wide Shut
- See Reel Views Eyes Wide Shut, MetroActive Eyes Wide Shut and FilmBlather, Eyes Wide Shut
- Adams, Mark (2004). Location London. Interlink. ISBN 1-84330-478-3.
- Chion, Michel (2002). Eyes wide shut. BFI Publishing. ISBN 978-0-85170-932-1.
- Ciment, Michel (2003). Kubrick: The Definitive Edition. Faber and Faber. ISBN 978-0-571-21108-1.
- Cocks, Geoffrey (2004). The Wolf at the Door: Stanley Kubrick, History, & the Holocaust. Peter Lang. ISBN 0-8204-7115-1.
- Cocks, Geoffrey; Diedrick, James; Perusek, Glen (eds.) (2006). Depth of field: Stanley Kubrick, film, and the uses of history. University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 0-299-21614-4.
- Nelson, Thomas Allen (2000). Kubrick: Inside a Film Artist's Maze. New and Expanded Edition. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-21390-8.
- Raphael, Frederic (2000). Eyes Wide Open. A Memoir of Stanley Kubrick and Eyes Wide Shut. Orion Publishing. ISBN 0-7538-0955-9.
- Rasmussen, Randy (2005). Stanley Kubrick: Seven Films Analyzed. McFarland & Company. ISBN 0-7864-2152-5.
- Eyes Wide Shut at the Internet Movie Database
- Eyes Wide Shut at the TCM Movie Database
- Eyes Wide Shut at Box Office Mojo
- Eyes Wide Shut at Rotten Tomatoes
- Eyes Wide Shut at Metacritic
- 04/05/16--02:59: Zelator
- "The Way of the Fool is no easy way, for it involves a balancing act, in which the Fool may stumble and become a fool. It is a cunning way, a way of strange knowledge. It is 'the Way that Is Not a Way' - 'the Way that Cannot Be Named'. Such titles alone should alert us to the ignorance of this Way, save among esotericists. Perhaps, when the ecclesiastical authorities attempted to root out the Festum Fatuoruin - the Feast of Fools, in the 15th century, they succeeded in driving underground any esoteric groups linked with the Way of the Fool.
- "And what is the result of such a journey? The result is a wise Fool. A fool is the one who gives up everything for an idea. The wise Fool is the one who knows that he never had anything to give up in the first place. Is that foolish?"
- The old man has committed himself. He has made a stand. Life has made him do that. He has drawn a circle around himself, and said, "This is where I stand, this is what I must do." He has committed himself to an action. Because he has drawn a circle around himself, others can see where he stands. He can be attacked by others, His position is weak. Those who have not committed themselves can mock, if they are so inclined. This is the age-old battle between youth and age. The one who has committed himself appears to be in a weak position. Yet the Spiritual truth is quite otherwise. It is the one who accepts commitment who is strong.
- Creativity is the giving away of Spiritual energy. Creativity is the soul in the expenditure of a bottomless purse. One gives sulphur away - initially perhaps through an excess of joy - for that is the foolishness of young men. Later, one gives away energy through commitment to an idea.
- Let me tell that Fools like myself become Teachers, because we find suddenly that there is no one else. It is as simple as that. One day, you are wandering through Florence, after a day in the libraries, surrounded by books. You are carrying under your arm further books, to pursue further dreams. You see a young child playing with a ball near the Baptistery. His mother stands some way off. She is paying no attention to the child. She has a cigarette dangling from her mouth. You can tell a great deal about that woman, and about the future of her child. Suddenly, there is an illumination. You realize how great is the gulf between yourself and those others. There is a curtain between you. You understand that this curtain is good for neither of you. The house out there is burning. You can see the flames, but those others cannot see the flames. All you have learned from those books, and from those conversations with wise men, from all those meditations, is to see the flames.
- Now the question is, can you leave those people in the flames? Would it not be the act of a Fool to snatch one, or perhaps two, out of the conflagration?''If that is what they want.''They cannot see the flames, but they do not wish to be burned. You see, my friend, you are an alchemist. You know that there are two sorts of flame. There is the soft and slow flame of the inner heat, and that terrible burning flame which consumes, and which feels no human pain. Both are the flames of burning sulphur, but they produce very different results."
- 04/09/16--02:22: The Secret Doctrine
- 1Volume one (Cosmogenesis)
- 2Volume two (Anthropogenesis)
- 3Volumes three and four
- 4Three fundamental propositions
- 5Theories on human evolution and race
- 6Study of the Secret Doctrine
- 7Writings about "The Secret Doctrine"
- 8Critical reception
- 9See also
- 13External links
- The first item reiterates Blavatsky's position that The Secret Doctrine represents the "accumulated Wisdom of the Ages", a system of thought that "is the uninterrupted record covering thousands of generations of Seers whose respective experiences were made to test and to verify the traditions passed orally by one early race to another, of the teachings of higher and exalted beings, who watched over the childhood of Humanity."
- The second item reiterates the first fundamental proposition (see above), calling the one principle "the fundamental law in that system [of cosmogony]". Here Blavatsky says of this principle that it is "the One homogeneous divine Substance-Principle, the one radical cause. … It is called "Substance-Principle," for it becomes "substance" on the plane of the manifested Universe, an illusion, while it remains a "principle" in the beginningless and endless abstract, visible and invisible Space. It is the omnipresent Reality: impersonal, because it contains all and everything. Its impersonality is the fundamental conception of the System. It is latent in every atom in the Universe, and is the Universe itself."
- The third item reiterates the second fundamental proposition (see above), impressing once again that "The Universe is the periodical manifestation of this unknown Absolute Essence.", while also touching upon the complex Sanskrit ideas of Parabrahmam and Mulaprakriti. This item presents the idea that the One unconditioned and absolute principle is covered over by its veil, Mulaprakriti, that the spiritual essence is forever covered by the material essence.
- The fourth item is the common eastern idea of Maya. Blavatsky states that the entire universe is called illusion because everything in it is temporary, i.e. has a beginning and an end, and is therefore unreal in comparison to the eternal changelessness of the One Principle.
- The fifth item reiterates the third fundamental proposition (see above), stating that everything in the universe is conscious, in its own way and on its own plane of perception. Because of this, the Occult Philosophy states that there are no unconscious or blind laws of Nature, that all is governed by consciousness and consciousnesses.
- The sixth item gives a core idea of theosophical philosophy, that "as above, so below". This is known as the "law of correspondences", its basic premise being that everything in the universe is worked and manifested from within outwards, or from the higher to the lower, and that thus the lower, the microcosm, is the copy of the higher, the macrocosm. Just as a human being experiences every action as preceded by an internal impulse of thought, emotion or will, so too the manifested universe is preceded by impulses from divine thought, feeling and will. This item gives rise to the notion of an "almost endless series of hierarchies of sentient beings", which itself becomes a central idea of many theosophists. The law of correspondences also becomes central to the methodology of many theosophists, as they look for analogous correspondence between various aspects of reality, for instance: the correspondence between the seasons of Earth and the process of a single human life, through birth, growth, adulthood and then decline and death.
- "Mankind is obviously divided into god-informed men and lower human creatures. The intellectual difference between the Aryan and other civilized nations and such savages as the South Sea Islanders, is inexplicable on any other grounds. No amount of culture, nor generations of training amid civilization, could raise such human specimens as the Bushmen, the Veddhas of Ceylon, and some African Tribes, to the same intellectual level as the Aryans, the Semites, and the Turanians so called. The 'sacred spark' is missing in them and it is they who are the only inferior races on the globe, now happily – owing to the wise adjustment of nature which ever works in that direction – fast dying out. Verily mankind is 'of one blood,' but not of the same essence. We are the hot-house, artificially quickened plants in nature, having in us a spark, which in them is latent" (The Secret Doctrine, Vol. 2, p 421).
- "Of such semi-animal creatures, the sole remnants known to Ethnology were the Tasmanians, a portion of the Australians and a mountain tribe in China, the men and women of which are entirely covered with hair. They were the last descendants in a direct line of the semi-animal latter-day Lemurians referred to. There are, however, considerable numbers of the mixed Lemuro-Atlantean peoples produced by various crossings with such semi-human stocks – e.g., the wild men of Borneo, the Veddhas of Ceylon, classed by Prof. Flower among Aryans (!), most of the remaining Australians, Bushmen, Negritos, Andaman Islanders, etc" (The Secret Doctrine, Vol. 2, pp 195–6).
- "Esoteric history teaches that idols and their worship died out with the Fourth Race, until the survivors of the hybrid races of the latter (Chinamen, African negroes, &c.) gradually brought the worship back. The Vedas countenance no idols; all the modern Hindu writings do" (The Secret Doctrine, Vol. 2, p 723).
- "Thus will mankind, race after race, perform its appointed cycle-pilgrimage. Climates will, and have already begun, to change, each tropical year after the other dropping one sub-race, but only to beget another higher race on the ascending cycle; while a series of other less favoured groups – the failures of nature – will, like some individual men, vanish from the human family without even leaving a trace behind" (The Secret Doctrine, Vol. 2, p 446).
- Alice Bailey: "But those of us who really studied it and arrived at some understanding of its inner significance have a basic appreciation of the truth that no other book seems to supply. HPB said that the next interpretation of the Ageless Wisdom would be a psychological approach, and A Treatise on Cosmic Fire , which I published in 1925, is the psychological key to The Secret Doctrine. None of my books would have been possible had I not at one time made a very close study of The Secret Doctrine."
- Blavatsky and The Secret Doctrine by Max Heindel (1933; from Max Heindel writings & with introduction by Manly Palmer Hall): "The Secret doctrine is one of the most remarkable books in the world... Behind her [H.P.B.] stood the real teachers, the guardians of the Secret Wisdom of the ages, who taught her all the occult lore which she transmitted in her writings."[full citation needed]
- Book of Dzyan
- Mahatma Letters
- Man: Whence, How and Whither
- New Age Spirituality
- New Thought
- The Rosicrucian Cosmo-Conception
- Round (Theosophy)
- Isis Unveiled
- "An Omnipresent, Eternal, Boundless, and Immutable PRINCIPLE on which all speculation is impossible, since it transcends the power of human conception and could only be dwarfed by any human expression or similitude."
- "The expansion 'from within without'..., does not allude to an expansion from a small centre or focus, but, without reference to size or limitation or area, means the development of limitless subjectivity into as limitless objectivity. ...It implies that this expansion, not being an increase in size—for infinite extension admits of no enlargement—was a change of condition." Manifest existence is often called "Illusion" in Theosophy, owing to its conceptual and actual differentiation from the only Reality.
- "Everything in the Universe, throughout all its kingdoms, is CONSCIOUS: i.e., endowed with a consciousness of its own kind and on its own plane of perception. We men must remember that because we do not perceive any signs—which we can recognise—of consciousness, say, in stones, we have no right to say that no consciousness exists there. There is no such thing as either 'dead' or 'blind' matter, as there is no 'Blind' or 'Unconscious' Law".
- Blavatsky states that each complete cycle lasts 311,040,000,000,000 years.
Blogger Ref http://www.p2pfoundation.net/Multi-Dimensional_Science
The problem with popularising, and sensationalizing the esoteric, and the occult is that such subjects can loose their initial impact, and value. On the other hand, public awareness, and interest in such things are raised...RS
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The first U.S. edition
|Series||Robert Langdon #2|
|Genre||Mystery, Detective fiction, Conspiracy fiction, Thriller|
Transworld& Bantam Books (UK)
|Pages||454 (U.S. hardback)
489 (U.S. paperback)
359 (UK hardback)
583 (UK paperback)
|ISBN||0-385-50420-9 (US) / 978-0-55215971-5 (UK)|
|LC Class||PS3552.R685434 D3 2003|
|Preceded by||Angels & Demons|
|Followed by||The Lost Symbol|
The novel explores an alternative religious history, whose central plot point is that the Merovingiankings of France were descended from the bloodline of Jesus Christ and Mary Magdalene, ideas derived from Clive Prince's The Templar Revelation (1997) and books by Margaret Starbird. The book also refers to The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail (1982) though Dan Brown has stated that it was not used as research material.
The Da Vinci Code provoked a popular interest in speculation concerning the Holy Grail legend and Mary Magdalene's role in the history of Christianity. The book has, however, been extensively denounced by many Christian denominations as an attack on the Roman Catholic Church, and consistently criticized for its historical and scientific inaccuracies. The novel nonetheless became a worldwide bestseller that sold 80 million copies as of 2009[update] and has been translated into 44 languages. Combining the detective, thriller and conspiracy fiction genres, it is Brown's second novel to include the character Robert Langdon: the first was his 2000 novel Angels & Demons. In November 2004, Random House published a Special Illustrated Edition with 160 illustrations. In 2006, a film adaptation was released by Sony'sColumbia Pictures.
Plot summaryLouvre curator and Priory of Sion Grand Master Jacques Saunière is fatally shot one night at the museum by an albino Catholic monk named Silas, who is working on behalf of someone he knows only as the Teacher, who wishes to discover the location of the "keystone", an item crucial to the search for the Holy Grail. After Saunière's body is discovered in the pose of the Vitruvian Man, the police summon Harvard Professor Robert Langdon, who is in town on business. Police Captain Bezu Fache tells him that he was summoned to help the police decode the cryptic message Saunière left during the final minutes of his life. The message includes a Fibonacci sequence out of order. Langdon explains to Fache that Saunière was a leading authority on the subject of goddess artwork and that the pentacle Saunière drew in his own blood represents an allusion to the goddess and not "devil worship", as Fache says.
A police cryptographer, Sophie Neveu, secretly explains to Langdon that she is Saunière's estranged granddaughter, and that Fache thinks Langdon is the murderer, because her grandfather's message said "PS Find Robert Langdon", which she says Fache had erased prior to Langdon's arrival. Neveu is troubled by memories of her grandfather's involvement in a secret pagan group. However, she understands that her grandfather intended Langdon to decipher the code, which she and Langdon find leads them to a safe deposit box at the Paris branch of the Depository Bank of Zurich. Neveu and Langdon escape from the police and visit the bank. In the safe deposit box they find the keystone: a cryptex, a cylindrical, hand-held vault with five concentric, rotating dials labeled with letters. When these are lined up correctly, they unlock the device. If the cryptex is forced open, an enclosed vial of vinegar ruptures and dissolves the message inside the cryptex, which was written on papyrus. The box containing the cryptex contains clues to its password.
Langdon and Neveu take the keystone to the house of Langdon's friend, Sir Leigh Teabing, an expert on the Holy Grail. There, Teabing explains that the Grail is not a cup, but a tomb containing the bones of Mary Magdalene. The trio then flees the country on Teabing's private plane, on which they conclude that the proper combination of letters spell out Neveu's given name, "SOFIA." Opening the cryptex, they discover a smaller cryptex inside it, along with another riddle that ultimately leads the group to the tomb of Isaac Newton in Westminster Abbey.
During the flight to Britain, Neveu reveals the source of her estrangement from her grandfather, ten years earlier. Arriving home unexpectedly from university, Neveu clandestinely witnesses a spring fertility rite conducted in the secret basement of her grandfather's country estate. From her hiding place, she is shocked to see her grandfather having sex with a woman at the center of a ritual attended by men and women who are wearing masks and chanting praise to the goddess. She flees the house and breaks off all contact with Saunière. Langdon explains that what she witnessed was an ancient ceremony known as Hieros gamos or "sacred marriage".
By the time they arrive at Westminster Abbey, Teabing is revealed to be the Teacher for whom Silas is working. Teabing wishes to use the Holy Grail, which he believes is a series of documents establishing that Jesus Christ married Mary Magdalene and bore children, in order to ruin the Vatican. He compels Langdon at gunpoint to solve the second cryptex's password, which Langdon realizes is "APPLE." Langdon secretly opens the cryptex and removes its contents before destroying it in front of Teabing. Teabing is arrested by Fache, who by now knows that Langdon was innocent. Bishop Aringarosa, realizing that Silas has been used to murder innocent people, rushes to help the police find him. When the police find Silas hiding in an Opus Dei Center, he assumes that they are there to kill him, and he rushes out, accidentally shooting Bishop Aringarosa. Bishop Aringarosa survives but is informed that Silas was found dead later from a bullet wound.
The final message inside the second keystone leads Neveu and Langdon to Rosslyn Chapel, whose docent turns out to be Neveu's long-lost brother, whom Neveu had been told died as a child in the car accident that killed her parents. The guardian of Rosslyn Chapel, Marie Chauvel Saint Clair, is Neveu's long-lost grandmother. It is revealed that Neveu is a descendant of Jesus Christ and Mary Magdalene. The Priory of Sion hid her identity to protect her from possible threats to her life.
The real meaning of the last message is that the Grail is buried beneath the small pyramid directly below the inverted glass pyramid of the Louvre. It also lies beneath the "Rose Line", an allusion to "Rosslyn". Langdon figures out this final piece to the puzzle in the last pages of the book, but he does not appear inclined to tell anyone about this. He follows the Rose Line to La Pyramide Inversée, where he kneels before the hidden sarcophagus of Mary Magdalene, as the Templar knights did before him.
Secret of the Holy Grail"The Last Supper" is not the apostle John, but actually Mary Magdalene.
Teabing says the absence of a chalice in Leonardo's painting means Leonardo knew that Mary Magdalene was the actual Holy Grail and the bearer of Jesus' blood. He explains that this idea is supported by the shape of the letter "V" that is formed by the bodily positions of Jesus and Mary, as "V" is the symbol for the sacred feminine.
The absence of the Apostle John in the painting is explained by knowing that John is also referred to as "the Disciple Jesus loved", which would be a code for Mary Magdalene. The book also notes that the color scheme of their garments are inverted: Jesus wears a red tunic with royal blue cloak; Mary Magdalene wears the opposite.
According to the novel, the secrets of the Holy Grail, as kept by the Priory of Sion, are as follows:
SalesThe Da Vinci Code was a major success in 2003 and was outsold only by J. K. Rowling's Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix.
Many critics took issue with the level of research Brown did when writing the story. New York Times writer Laura Miller characterized the novel as "based on a notorious hoax", "rank nonsense", and "bogus", saying the book is heavily based on the fabrications of Pierre Plantard, who is asserted to have created the Priory of Sion in 1956.
Critics accuse Brown of distorting and fabricating history. For example, Marcia Ford wrote:
Regardless of whether you agree with Brown's conclusions, it's clear that his history is largely fanciful, which means he and his publisher have violated a long-held if unspoken agreement with the reader: Fiction that purports to present historical facts should be researched as carefully as a nonfiction book would be.Richard Abanes wrote:
The most flagrant aspect... is not that Dan Brown disagrees with Christianity but that he utterly warps it in order to disagree with it... to the point of completely rewriting a vast number of historical events. And making the matter worse has been Brown's willingness to pass off his distortions as ‘facts' with which innumerable scholars and historians agree.The book opens with the claim by Dan Brown that "The Priory of Sion – a French secret society founded in 1099 – is a real organization". This assertion is broadly disputed. Some critics claim that the Priory of Sion was a hoax created in 1956 by Pierre Plantard. The author also claims that "all descriptions of artwork, architecture, documents... and secret rituals in this novel are accurate", but this claim is disputed by numerous academic scholars expert in numerous areas.
Dan Brown himself addresses the idea of some of the more controversial aspects being fact on his web site, stating that the "FACT" page at the beginning of the novel mentions only "documents, rituals, organization, artwork and architecture", but not any of the ancient theories discussed by fictional characters, stating that "Interpreting those ideas is left to the reader". Brown also says, "It is my belief that some of the theories discussed by these characters may have merit" and "the secret behind The Da Vinci Code was too well documented and significant for me to dismiss."
In 2003, while promoting the novel, Brown was asked in interviews what parts of the history in his novel actually happened. He replied "Absolutely all of it." In a 2003 interview with CNN's Martin Savidge he was again asked how much of the historical background was true. He replied, "99% is true... the background is all true". Asked by Elizabeth Vargas in an ABC News special if the book would have been different if he had written it as non-fiction he replied, "I don't think it would have."
In 2005, UK TV personality Tony Robinson edited and narrated a detailed rebuttal of the main arguments of Dan Brown and those of Michael Baigent, Richard Leigh and Henry Lincoln, who authored the book Holy Blood, Holy Grail, in the program The Real Da Vinci Code, shown on British TVChannel 4. The program featured lengthy interviews with many of the main protagonists cited by Brown as "absolute fact" in The Da Vinci Code. Arnaud de Sède, son of Gérard de Sède, stated categorically that his father and Plantard had made up the existence of the Prieuré de Sion, the cornerstone of the Jesus bloodline theory: "frankly, it was piffle".
The earliest appearance of this theory is due to the 13th-century Cistercian monk and chronicler Peter of Vaux de Cernay who reported that Cathars believed that that the 'evil' and 'earthly'Jesus Christ had a relationship with Mary Magdalene, described as his concubine (and that the 'good Christ' was incorporeal and existed spiritually in the body of Paul). The program The Real Da Vinci Code also cast doubt on the Rosslyn Chapel association with the Grail and on other related stories, such as the alleged landing of Mary Magdalene in France.
According to The Da Vinci Code, the Roman Emperor Constantine I suppressed Gnosticism because it portrayed Jesus as purely human. The novel's argument is as follows. Constantine wanted Christianity to act as a unifying religion for the Roman Empire. He thought Christianity would appeal to pagans only if it featured a demigod similar to pagan heroes. According to the Gnostic Gospels, Jesus was merely a human prophet, not a demigod. Therefore, to change Jesus' image, Constantine destroyed the Gnostic Gospels and promoted the gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, which portray Jesus as divine or semidivine.
But Gnosticism did not portray Jesus as merely human. All Gnostic writings depict Christ as purely divine, his human body being a mere illusion (see Docetism). Gnostic sects saw Christ this way because they regarded matter as evil, and therefore believed that a divine spirit would never have taken on a material body.
Literary criticismThe book received both positive and negative reviews from critics, and it has been the subject of negative appraisals concerning its portrayal of history. Its writing and historical accuracy were reviewed negatively by The New Yorker,Salon.com, and Maclean's.
Janet Maslin of The New York Times said, "it concisely conveys the kind of extreme enthusiasm with which this riddle-filled, code-breaking, exhilaratingly brainy thriller can be recommended. That word is wow. The author is Dan Brown (a name you will want to remember). In this gleefully erudite suspense novel, Mr. Brown takes the format he has been developing through three earlier novels and fine-tunes it to blockbuster perfection."
David Lazarus of The San Francisco Chronicle said, "This story has so many twists – all satisfying, most unexpected – that it would be a sin to reveal too much of the plot in advance. Let's just say that if this novel doesn't get your pulse racing, you need to check your meds."
While interviewing Umberto Eco in a 2008 issue of The Paris Review, Lila Azam Zanganeh characterized The Da Vinci Code as "a bizarre little offshoot" of Eco's novel, Foucault’s Pendulum. In response, Eco remarked, "Dan Brown is a character from Foucault's Pendulum! I invented him. He shares my characters’ fascinations—the world conspiracy of Rosicrucians, Masons, and Jesuits. The role of the Knights Templar. The hermetic secret. The principle that everything is connected. I suspect Dan Brown might not even exist."
The book appeared on a 2010 list of 101 best books ever written, which was derived from a survey of more than 15,000 Australian readers.
Salman Rushdie said during a lecture, "Do not start me on 'The Da Vinci Code'. A novel so bad that it gives bad novels a bad name."
Stephen Fry has referred to Brown's writings as "complete loose stool-water" and "arse gravy of the worst kind". In a live chat on June 14, 2006, he clarified, "I just loathe all those book[s] about the Holy Grail and Masons and Catholic conspiracies and all that botty-dribble. I mean, there's so much more that's interesting and exciting in art and in history. It plays to the worst and laziest in humanity, the desire to think the worst of the past and the desire to feel superior to it in some fatuous way."
Stephen King likened Dan Brown's work to "Jokes for the John", calling such literature the "intellectual equivalent of Kraft Macaroni and Cheese".The New York Times, while reviewing the movie based on the book, called the book "Dan Brown's best-selling primer on how not to write an English sentence".The New Yorker reviewer Anthony Lane refers to it as "unmitigated junk" and decries "the crumbling coarseness of the style". Linguist Geoffrey Pullum and others posted several entries critical of Dan Brown's writing, at Language Log, calling Brown one of the "worst prose stylists in the history of literature" and saying Brown's "writing is not just bad; it is staggeringly, clumsily, thoughtlessly, almost ingeniously bad".Roger Ebert described it as a "potboiler written with little grace and style", although he said it did "supply an intriguing plot". In his review of the film National Treasure, whose plot also involves ancient conspiracies and treasure hunts, he wrote: "I should read a potboiler like The Da Vinci Code every once in a while, just to remind myself that life is too short to read books like The Da Vinci Code."
LawsuitsAuthor Lewis Perdue alleged that Brown plagiarized from two of his novels, The Da Vinci Legacy, originally published in 1983, and Daughter of God, originally published in 2000. He sought to block distribution of the book and film. However, Judge George Daniels of the US District Court in New York ruled against Perdue in 2005, saying that "A reasonable average lay observer would not conclude that The Da Vinci Code is substantially similar to Daughter of God" and that "Any slightly similar elements are on the level of generalized or otherwise unprotectable ideas." Perdue appealed, the 2nd US Circuit Court of Appeals upheld the original decision, saying Mr. Perdue's arguments were "without merit".
In early 2006, Baigent and Leigh filed suit against Brown's publishers, Random House. They alleged that significant portions of The Da Vinci Code were plagiarized from Holy Blood, Holy Grail, violating their copyright. Brown confirmed during the court case that he named the principal Grail expert of his story Leigh Teabing, an anagram of "Baigent Leigh", after the two plaintiffs. In reply to the suggestion that Henry Lincoln was also referred to in the book, since he has medical problems resulting in a severe limp, like the character of Leigh Teabing, Brown stated he was unaware of Lincoln's illness and the correspondence was a coincidence.
Because Baigent and Leigh had presented their conclusions as historical research, not as fiction, Justice Peter Smith, who presided over the trial, deemed that a novelist must be free to use these ideas in a fictional context, and ruled against Baigent and Leigh. Smith also hid his own secret code in his written judgement, in the form of seemingly random italicized letters in the 71-page document, which apparently spell out a message. Smith indicated he would confirm the code if someone broke it. Baigent and Leigh appealed, unsuccessfully, to the Court of Appeal.
In April 2006 Mikhail Anikin, a Russian scientist and art historian working as a senior researcher at the Hermitage Museum in St Petersburg, stated the intention to bring a lawsuit against Dan Brown, maintaining that he was the one who coined the phrase used as the book's title and one of the ideas regarding the Mona Lisa used in its plot. Anikin interprets the Mona Lisa to be an Christian allegory consisting of two images, one of Jesus Christ that comprises the image's right half, one of the Virgin Mary that forms its left half. According to Anikin, he expressed this idea to a group of experts from the Museum of Houston during a 1988 René Magritte exhibit at the Hermitage, and when one of the Americans requested permission to pass it along to a friend Anikin granted the request on condition that he be credited in any book using his interpretation. Anikin eventually compiled his research into Leonardo da Vinci or Theology on Canvas, a book published in 2000, but The Da Vinci Code, published three years later, makes no mention of Anikin and instead asserts that the idea in question is a "well-known opinion of a number of scientists."
Release detailsThe book has been translated into over 40 languages, primarily hardcover.
In reference to Richard Leigh and Michael Baigent, two of the authors of The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail, Brown named the principal Grail expert of his story "Leigh Teabing", an anagram of "Baigent Leigh". Brown confirmed this during the court case. In reply to the suggestion that Lincoln was also referenced, as he has medical problems resulting in a severe limp, like the character of Leigh Teabing, Brown stated he was unaware of Lincoln's illness and the correspondence was a coincidence. After losing before the High Court on July 12, 2006, Michael Baigent and Richard Leigh appealed, unsuccessfully, to the Court of Appeal.
Following the trial, it was found that the publicity had actually significantly boosted UK sales of The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail.
Major English-language (hardcover) editions include:
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: The Da Vinci Code|
Blogger Ref http://www.p2pfoundation.net/Multi-Dimensional_Science
The above subject has relevance to myself as I used to live in Windsor where the legend of Herne the Hunter was prevalent. I was interested to see the following Wikipedia article on the subject. Ofcourse, there are many other articles on this subject on the internet. RS
The first literary mention of Herne is in William Shakespeare's play The Merry Wives of Windsor, though there are several theories attempting to place the origins of Herne as predating any evidence for him by connecting his appearance to pagan deities or ancient archetypes.
Herne has appeared in various books, TV series and other media since his first mention by Shakespeare.
|This section does not cite any sources. (December 2012)|
Shakespeare as the earliest source merely describes Herne the Hunter as "a spirit" and "sometime a keeper … in Windsor forest" who is seen to "walk round about an oak, with great ragg’d horns" at midnight during winter-time.
Two hundred years later in 1792 Samuel Ireland slightly expands on Shakespeare as follows: “The story of this Herne, who was keeper in the forest in the time of Elizabeth, runs thus: – That having committed some great offence, for which he feared to lose his situation and fall into disgrace, he was induced to hang himself on this tree.”
William Ainsworth’s romantic novel Windsor Castle which began serialisation in 1842 contains a fictionalised account of the origins of Herne the Hunter set during the reign of Richard II. This fabrication was popular with the Victorians, and has come down to the present day as being the legend.
GhostThe earliest written account of Herne comes from Shakespeare's The Merry Wives of Windsor in 1597:
Herne's OakThe supposed location of Herne's Oak was, for many years, a matter of local speculation and controversy. Some Ordnance Survey maps show Herne's Oak a little to the north of Frogmore House in the Home Park (adjoining Windsor Great Park). This is generally believed to be the correct site from which the oak of Shakespeare's time was felled in 1796.
The legend of the oak was looked into by her son, King Edward VII and a new oak planted on the site of the tree that was felled in 1796.
In 1838, Edward Jesse claimed that a different tree in the avenue was the real Herne's Oak, and this gained in popularity especially with Queen Victoria. This tree was blown down on 31 August 1863, and Queen Victoria had another tree planted on the same site. The Queen's tree was removed in 1906 when the avenue was replanted.
Possible originsVarious theories have been proposed to account for the origin of the character, none of which has been proved conclusive, and the source for many of the tales told of Herne remain unknown.
Palæolithic origins and relationship with the Celtic CernunnosIn his 1929 book The History of the Devil – The Horned God of the West Herne R. Love Thompson suggests that "Herne" as well as other Wild Huntsmen in European folklore all derive from the same ancient source, citing that "Herne" may be a cognate of the name of Gaulish deity Cernunnos in the same way that the English "horn" is a cognate of the Latin "cornu" (see Grimm's Law for more details on this linguistic feature) explaining that "As the Latin cornu changes into horn so might Cerne change into Herne." and adding "In any case the reader may also be prepared to recognize Cernunnos and the older magician, who emerge as the Wild Huntsman. My assumption is that these two forms have been derived from the same Palæolithic ancestor and can, indeed, be regarded as two aspects of one central figure, will help us to understand the identification of Herlechin and Herne, whom I will take as the most familiar example of the huntsman.". Some modern Neopagans such as Wiccans accept Lowe Thompson's equation of Herne with Cernunnos (which they further connect to the Greco-Roman god Pan). Herne however is a localised figure, not found outside Berkshire and the regions of the surrounding counties into which Windsor Forest once spread. Clear evidence for the worship of Cernunnos has however been recovered only on the European mainland, and not in Britain."Herne" could be derived ultimately from the same Indo-European root, *ker-n-, meaning bone or horn from which "Cernunnos" derives. However a more direct source may be the Old Englishhyrne, meaning "horn" or "corner", which is inconsistent with the Cernunnos theory.
Anglo-Saxon deityIn the Early Middle Ages, Windsor Forest came under the control of the pagan Angles who worshiped their own pantheon of gods, including Woden, who was sometimes depicted as horned, and whose Norse equivalent Odin rode across the night sky with his own Wild Hunt and hanged himself on the world treeYggdrasil to learn the secret of the runic alphabet. It has been suggested that the name Herne is derived from the title Herian, a title used for Woden in his role as leader of fallen warriors (Old NorseEinherjar). Another Wild Hunt-associated folkloric figure, King Herla, started as the Old EnglishHerla cyning, a figure that is usually said to be Woden, but was later re-imagined by Walter Map in literature as a Brythonic king (see Herla article) who after travelling to an Otherworld returns to find his lands inhabited by Englishmen, has a name that has also been connected to Herian and thus also possibly to Herne.
Historical individualBoth Shakespeare and Samuel Ireland identify Herne as a real historical individual, the latter saying that he died an unholy death of the type that might have given rise to tales of hauntings by his unquiet spirit.[non-primary source needed] The fact that Herne is apparently a purely local figure supports this theory. One possibility is that Herne is supposed to be the ghost of Richard Horne, a yeoman during the reign of Henry VIII who was caught poaching in the wood. This suggestion was first made by James Halliwell-Phillipps, who identified a document listing Horne as a "hunter" who had confessed to poaching. The earliest edition of The Merry Wives of Windsor spells the name "Horne".
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10 - The Book of Soyga
9 - Codex Seraphinianus
8 - Hypnerotomachia Poliphili
7 - The Oera Linda Book
6 - The Ripley Scrolls
5 - The Smithfield Decretals
PG-13 illustration from the Smithfield Decretals : http://i.imgur.com/OQv3rzj.jpg
4 - The Rohonc Codex
3 - The Red Book
2 - Prodigiorum ac ostentorum chronicon
1 - The Voynich Manuscript
"Looking Through Broken Glass", by Neilcross.
Paulo Coelho in 2008
(1947-08-24) August 24, 1947
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
|Notable works||The Alchemist, Brida|
BiographyPaulo Coelho was born in Brazil and attended a Jesuit school. As a teenager, Coelho wanted to become a writer. Upon telling his mother this, she responded, "My dear, your father is an engineer. He's a logical, reasonable man with a very clear vision of the world. Do you actually know what it means to be a writer?" After researching, which was common for him since he was a policy debater when he was in high school, Coelho concluded that a writer "always wears glasses and never combs his hair" and has a "duty and an obligation never to be understood by his own generation," amongst other things. At 17, Coelho's introversion and opposition to following a traditional path led to his parents committing him to a mental institution from which he escaped three times before being released at the age of 20. Coelho later remarked that "It wasn't that they wanted to hurt me, but they didn't know what to do... They did not do that to destroy me, they did that to save me." At his parents' wishes, Coelho enrolled in law school and abandoned his dream of becoming a writer. One year later, he dropped out and lived life as a hippie, traveling through South America, North Africa, Mexico, and Europe and started using drugs in the 1960s. Upon his return to Brazil, Coelho worked as a songwriter, composing lyrics for Elis Regina, Rita Lee, and Brazilian iconRaul Seixas. Composing with Raul led to Coelho being associated with magic and occultism, due to the content of some songs. In 1974, Coelho was arrested for "subversive" activities by the ruling military government, who had taken power ten years earlier and viewed his lyrics as left-wing and dangerous. Coelho also worked as an actor, journalist, and theatre director before pursuing his writing career.
In 1986, Coelho walked the 500-plus mile Road of Santiago de Compostela in northwestern Spain, a turning point in his life. On the path, Coelho had a spiritual awakening, which he described autobiographically in The Pilgrimage. In an interview, Coelho stated "[In 1986], I was very happy in the things I was doing. I was doing something that gave me food and water – to use the metaphor in "The Alchemist", I was working, I had a person whom I loved, I had money, but I was not fulfilling my dream. My dream was, and still is, to be a writer." Coelho would leave his lucrative career as a songwriter and pursue writing full-time.
Writing careerIn 1982, Coelho published his first book, Hell Archives, which failed to make a substantial impact. In 1986 he contributed to the Practical Manual of Vampirism, although he later tried to take it off the shelves since he considered it "of bad quality." After making the pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela in 1986, Coelho wrote The Pilgrimage and was published in the year 1987. The following year, Coelho wrote The Alchemist and published it through a small Brazilian publishing house who made an initial print run of 900 copies and decided not to reprint. He subsequently found a bigger publishing house, and with the publication of his next book Brida, The Alchemist took off. HarperCollins, the biggest publishing House in the United States, decided to publish the book in 1994. Then, it became first a Brazilian bestseller, later a world-wide phenomenon.[clarification needed]The Alchemist has gone on to sell more than 83 million copies, becoming one of the best-selling books in history, and has been translated into 67 different languages, winning the Guinness World Record for most translated book by a living author.
The Alchemist, easily known as his most successful book, is a story about a young shepherd who travels from his homeland in Spain to the Egyptian desert in search of a treasure buried in the Pyramids. No one knows what the treasure is, or if Santiago will be able to surmount the obstacles along the way. But what starts out as a journey to find worldly goods turns into a discovery of the treasure found within. The book has inspired a devoted following around the world, with Will Smith, Madonna, and others having declared it to be their favorite novel, and Bill Clinton having been seen with a copy of the book. In 2014, Oprah Winfrey interviewed pop star Pharrell Williams, who stated that The Alchemist had changed his life.
Since the publication of The Alchemist, Coelho has generally written one novel every two years including By the River Piedra I Sat Down and Wept, The Fifth Mountain, Veronika Decides to Die, The Devil and Miss Prym, Eleven Minutes, Like the Flowing River, Brida, The Valkyries, The Winner Stands Alone, The Zahir, The Witch of Portobello, Aleph (novel), Manuscript Found in Accra and Adultery. While trying to overcome his procrastination of launching his writing career, Coelho said, "If I see a white feather today, that is a sign that God is giving me that I have to write a new book." Coelho found a white feather in the window of a shop, and began writing that day.
In total, Coelho has published 30 books. Three of them – The Pilgrimage,The Valkyries and Aleph– are autobiographical, while the majority of the rest are fictional, although rooted in his life experiences. Others, like Maktub and The Manual of the Warrior of Light, are collections of essays, newspaper columns, or selected teachings. In total, Coelho has sold more than 210 million books in over 170 countries worldwide (June 2015 sales figures), and his works have been translated into 80 languages.
Coelho writes up to three blog posts a week at his blog, and has over 25 million fans on Facebook, and more than 9 million followers on Twitter, a higher number than authors such as Stephen King and J.K. Rowling. Coelho discussed his relationship with readers through social media platforms with The Wall Street Journal in August 2014.
|Year||Portuguese title||English title|
|1974||O Manifesto de Krig-há||The Manifest of Krig-há|
|1974||Teatro da Educação||Theater For Education|
|1982||Arquivos do Inferno||Hell Archives|
|1986||O Manual Prático do Vampirismo||Practical Manual of Vampirism|
|1987||O Diário de Um Mago||The Pilgrimage|
|1988||O Alquimista||The Alchemist|
|1991||O Dom Supremo||The Supreme Gift|
|1992||As Valkírias||The Valkyries|
|Na margem do rio Piedra eu sentei e chorei||By the River Piedra I Sat Down and Wept|
|1996||O Monte Cinco||The Fifth Mountain|
|1997||Letras do amor de um profeta||Love Letters from a Prophet|
|Manual do guerreiro da luz||Manual of the Warrior of Light|
|1998||Veronika decide morrer||Veronika Decides to Die|
|Palavras essenciais||Essential Words|
|2000||O Demônio e a srta Prym||The Devil and Miss Prym|
|2001||Histórias para pais, filhos e netos||Fathers, Sons and Grandsons|
|2003||Onze Minutos||Eleven Minutes|
|2004||E no sétimo dia||And on the Seventh Day (collection of the novels By the River Piedra I Sat Down and Wept, Veronika Decides to Die and The Devil and Miss Prym)|
|O Gênio e as Rosas||The Genie and the Roses|
|2005||O Zahir||The Zahir|
|Caminhos Recolhidos||Revived Paths|
|2006||Ser como um rio que flui||Like the Flowing River|
|A bruxa de Portobello||The Witch of Portobello|
|2008||O vencedor está só||The Winner Stands Alone|
|2012||Manuscrito Encontrado em Accra||Manuscript Found in Accra|
Não Pare na PistaThe Pilgrim – the Best Story of Paulo Coelho is the international title for the film Não Pare na Pista, a movie about Coelho's life. A co-production between Brazil’s Dama Filmes, led by Carolina Kotscho and Iôna de Macedo, Angélica Huete’s Babel Films in Spain and directed by Daniel Augusto. Ravel and Júlio Andrade play the young and old Coelho, and other cast members include international names such as Fabiana Gugli, Nancho Novo and Paz Vega. Those working on the film include Pedro Almodovar’s regular art director Antxón Gómez and Oscar-winning make-up artists Montse Ribé and David Marti.
De Macedo told Screen: "The film tells the story of a man who has a dream. It’s a little like Alice in Wonderland – he’s someone who is too big for his house." The film, shot in Portuguese, had its premiere in Brazilian Theaters on 2014, was internationally distributed by Picture Tree on 2015, according to Variety.
Paulo Coelho FoundationIn November 2014, Paulo Coelho finished uploading around 80,000 documents-manuscripts, diaries, photos, reader letters, press clippings-and created a virtual Paulo Coelho Foundation, together with the physical foundation which is based in Geneva.
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Game of Snakes and Ladders, gouache on cloth (India, 19th century)
|Years active||Ancient India to present|
|Playing time||15–45 minutes|
|Skill(s) required||Counting, observation|
|Synonym(s)||Chutes and Ladders|
The game is a simple race contest based on sheer luck, and is popular with young children. The historic version had root in morality lessons, where a player's progression up the board represented a life journey complicated by virtues (ladders) and vices (snakes). A commercial version without morality lessons and published by Milton Bradley is named Chutes and Ladders.
EquipmentThe size of the grid (most commonly 8×8, 10×10, or 12×12) varies from board to board, as does the exact arrangement of the snakes and ladders, with both factors affecting the duration of play. Each player is represented by a distinctly coloured game piece token. A single die is rolled to determine random movement of a player's token in the traditional form of play.
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Jain philosophy encompassed the concepts like karma and Moksha.
The game was popular in ancient India by the name Moksha Patam. It was also associated with traditional Hindu philosophy contrasting karma and kama, or destiny and desire. It emphasized destiny, as opposed to games such as pachisi, which focused on life as a mixture of skill (free will) and luck. The underlying ideals of the game inspired a version introduced in Victorian England in 1892. The game has also been interpreted and used as a tool for teaching the effects of good deeds versus bad. The board was covered with symbolic images, the top featuring gods, angels, and majestic beings, while the rest of the board was covered with pictures of animals, flowers and people. The ladders represented virtues such as generosity, faith, and humility, while the snakes represented vices such as lust, anger, murder, and theft. The morality lesson of the game was that a person can attain salvation (Moksha) through doing good, whereas by doing evil one will inherit rebirth to lower forms of life. The number of ladders was less than the number of snakes as a reminder that a path of good is much more difficult to tread than a path of sins. Presumably, reaching the last square (number 100) represented the attainment of Moksha (spiritual liberation).
When the game was brought to England, the Indian virtues and vices were replaced by English ones in hopes of better reflecting Victorian doctrines of morality. Squares of Fulfillment, Grace and Success were accessible by ladders of Thrift, Penitence and Industry and snakes of Indulgence, Disobedience and Indolence caused one to end up in Illness, Disgrace and Poverty. While the Indian version of the game had snakes outnumbering ladders, the English counterpart was more forgiving as it contained each in the same amount. This concept of equality signifies the cultural ideal that for every sin one commits, there exists another chance at redemption.
The association of Britain’s Snakes and Ladders with India and gyan chauper began with the returning of colonial families from one of Britain’s most important imperial possessions, India. The décor and art of the early English boards of the 20th century reflect this relationship. By the 1940s, very few pictorial references to the Indian culture were found due to the economic demands of the war and the collapse of British rule in India. Although the game’s sense of morality has lasted through the game’s generations, the physical allusions to religious and philosophical thought in the game as presented in Indian models appear to have all but faded. There has even been evidence of a possible Buddhist version of the game existing in India during the Pala-Sena time period.
In Andhra Pradesh, this game is popularly called Vaikunthapali or Paramapada Sopana Patam (the ladder to salvation) in Telugu. In Hindi, this game is called Saanp aur Seedhi, Saanp Seedhi and Mokshapat.
In the original game the squares of virtue are: Faith (12), Reliability (51), Generosity (57), Knowledge (76), and Asceticism (78). The squares of vice or evil are: Disobedience (41), Vanity (44), Vulgarity (49), Theft (52), Lying (58), Drunkenness (62), Debt (69), Murder (73), Rage (84), Greed (92), Pride (95), and Lust (99).
Gameplaydie to move the token by the number of squares indicated by the die roll. Tokens follow a fixed route marked on the gameboard which usually follows a boustrophedon (ox-plow) track from the bottom to the top of the playing area, passing once through every square. If, on completion of a move, a player's token lands on the lower-numbered end of a "ladder", the player must move the token up to the ladder's higher-numbered square. If the player lands on the higher-numbered square of a "snake" (or chute), the token must move down to the snake's lower-numbered square.
If a player rolls a 6, the player may, after moving, immediately take another turn; otherwise play passes to the next player in turn. The player who is first to bring their token to the last square of the track is the winner.
A variation exists where a player must roll the exact number to reach the final square to win. Depending on the particular variation, if the roll of the die is too large the token either remains in place or goes off the final square and back again. For example, if a player requiring a 3 to win rolls a 5, they would move forward three spaces and then back two again. In certain circumstances (such as a person requiring a 1 to win rolling a 6), a player can end up further from the final square after this move than before it.
Specific editionsThe most widely known edition of Snakes and Ladders in the United States is Chutes and Ladders released by Milton Bradley in 1943. The playground setting replaced the snakes, which were received negatively by children at the time. It is played on a 10×10 board, and players advance their pieces according to a spinner rather than a die. The theme of the board design is playground equipment, showing children climbing ladders and descending chutes. The artwork on the board teaches a morality lesson, the squares on the bottom of the ladders show a child doing a good or sensible deed and at the top of the ladder there is an image of the child enjoying the reward. At the top of the chutes, there are pictures of children engaging in mischievous or foolish behaviour and the images on the bottom show the child suffering the consequences. Black children were depicted in the Milton Bradley game for the first time in 1974. There have been many pop culture versions of the game, with graphics featuring such children's television characters as Dora the Explorer and Sesame Street. It has been marketed as "The Classic Up and Down Game for Preschoolers".
In Canada the game has been traditionally sold as "Snakes and Ladders", and produced by the Canada Games Company. Several Canadian specific versions have been produced over the years, including a version substituting Toboggan runs for the snakes. With the demise of the Canada Games Company, Chutes and Ladders produced by Milton Bradley/Hasbro has been gaining in popularity.
The most common in the United Kingdom is Spear's Games' edition of Snakes and Ladders, played on a 10×10 board where a single die is used. Another early British version of the game depicts the path of a young boy and girl making their way through a cartoon railroad and train system.
During the early 1990s in South Africa, Chutes and Ladders games made from cardboard were distributed on the back of egg boxes as part of a promotion.
Even though the concept of major virtues against vices and related Eastern spiritualism is not much emphasized in modern incarnations of the game, the central mechanism of Snakes and Ladders makes it an effective tool for teaching young children about various subjects. In two separate Indonesian schools, the implementation of the game as media in English lessons of fifth graders not only improved the students' vocabulary but also stimulated their interest and excitement about the learning process. Researchers from Carnegie Mellon University found that pre-schoolers from low income backgrounds who played an hour of numerical board games like Snakes and Ladders matched the performance of their middle-class counterparts by showing improvements in counting and recognizing number shapes. An eco-inspired version of the game was also used to teach students and teachers about climate change and environmental sustainability.
Mathematics of the gameabsorbing Markov chain, since from any square the odds of moving to any other square are fixed and independent of any previous game history. The Milton Bradley version of Chutes and Ladders has 100 squares, with 19 chutes and ladders. A player will need an average of 39.6 spins to move from the starting point, which is off the board, to square 100. A two-player game is expected to end in 47.76 moves with a 50.9% chance of winning for the first player.
In the book Winning Ways the authors show how to treat Snakes and Ladders as an impartial game in combinatorial game theory even though it is very far from a natural fit to this category. To this end they make a few rule changes such as allowing players to move any counter any number of spaces, and declaring the winner as the player who gets the last counter home. Unlike the original game, this version, which they call Adders-and-Ladders, involves skill.
In popular cultureThe phrase "back to square one" originates in the game of snakes and ladders, or at least was influenced by it – the earliest attestation of the phrase refers to the game: "Withal he has the problem of maintaining the interest of the reader who is always being sent back to square one in a sort of intellectual game of snakes and ladders."
The game is a central metaphor of Salman Rushdie's Midnight's Children. The narrator describes the game as follows:
All games have morals; and the game of Snakes and Ladders captures, as no other activity can hope to do, the eternal truth that for every ladder you hope to climb, a snake is waiting just around the corner, and for every snake a ladder will compensate. But it's more than that; no mere carrot-and-stick affair; because implicit in the game is unchanging twoness of things, the duality of up against down, good against evil; the solid rationality of ladders balances the occult sinuosities of the serpent; in the opposition of staircase and cobra we can see, metaphorically, all conceivable oppositions, Alpha against Omega, father against mother.
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Kubrick obtained the filming rights for Dream Story in the 1960s, considering it a perfect novel for a film adaptation about sexual relations. The project was only revived in the 1990s, when the director hired writer Frederic Raphael to help him with the adaptation. The film was mostly shot in the United Kingdom (aside from some exterior establishing shots), and included a detailed recreation of some exterior Greenwich Village street scenes at Pinewood Studios. The film spent a long time in production, and holds the Guinness World Record for the longest continuous film shoot period, at 400 days.
Eyes Wide Shut was released on July 16, 1999, a few months following Kubrick's death, to positive critical reaction and intakes of $162 million at the worldwide box office. Its strong sexual content also made it controversial; to ensure a theatrical R rating in the United States, Warner Bros. digitally altered several scenes during post-production. The uncut version has since been released in DVD, HD DVD, and Blu-ray Disc formats.
PlotDr. Bill Harford (Tom Cruise) and his wife, Alice (Nicole Kidman), are a young couple living in New York. They go to a Christmas party thrown by a wealthy patient, Victor Ziegler (Sydney Pollack). Bill meets an old friend from medical school, Nick Nightingale (Todd Field), who now plays piano professionally. While a Hungarian man named Sandor Szavost (Sky du Mont) tries to pick up Alice, two young models try to take Bill off for a tryst. He is interrupted by a call from his host upstairs, who had been having sex with Mandy (Julienne Davis), a young woman who has overdosed on a speedball. Mandy recovers with Bill's aid.
The next evening at home, while smoking cannabis, Alice asks him if he had sex with the two girls. After Bill reassures her, she asks if he is ever jealous of men who are attracted to her. As the discussion gets heated, he states that he thinks women are more faithful than men. She rebuts him, telling him of a recent fantasy she had about a naval officer they had encountered on a vacation. Disturbed by Alice's revelation, Bill is then called by the daughter of a patient who has just died; he then heads over to her place. In her pain, Marion Nathanson (Marie Richardson) impulsively kisses him and says she loves him. Putting her off before her fiance Carl (Thomas Gibson) arrives, Bill takes a walk. He meets a prostitute named Domino (Vinessa Shaw) and goes to her apartment.
Alice phones just as Domino begins to kiss Bill, after which he calls off the awkward encounter. Meeting Nick at the jazz club where he's just finishing his last set, Bill learns that Nick has an engagement where he must play piano blindfolded. Bill presses for details. He learns that to gain admittance, one needs a costume, a mask, and the password (which Nick writes down for him). Bill goes to a costume shop. He offers the owner, Mr. Milich (Rade Serbedzija), a generous amount of money to rent a costume. In the shop, Milich catches his teenage daughter (Leelee Sobieski) with two Japanese men and expresses outrage at their lack of a sense of decency.
Bill takes a taxi to the country mansion mentioned by Nick. He gives the password and discovers a quasi-religious sexual ritual is taking place. Although he is masked, a woman takes Bill aside and warns him he does not belong there, insisting he is in terrible danger. She is then whisked away by someone else, so Bill spends some time wandering from room to room in the mansion, where groups of masked people are engaged in various types of sexual acts, while others watch. He is then interrupted by a porter who tells Bill that the taxi driver wants to speak urgently with him at the front door. However, the porter takes him to the ritual room, where a disguised red-cloaked Master of Ceremonies confronts Bill with a question about a second password. Bill says he has forgotten. The Master of Ceremonies insists that Bill "kindly remove his mask", then his clothes. The masked woman who had tried to warn Bill now intervenes and insists that she will redeem him. Bill is ushered from the mansion and warned not to tell anyone about what happened there.
Just before dawn, Bill arrives home guilty and confused. He finds Alice laughing loudly in her sleep and awakens her. While crying, she tells him of a troubling dream in which she was having sex with the naval officer and many other men, and laughing at the idea of Bill seeing her with them.
The next morning, Bill goes to Nick's hotel, where the desk clerk (Alan Cumming) tells Bill that a bruised and frightened Nick checked out a few hours earlier after returning with two large, dangerous-looking men. Nick tried to pass an envelope to the clerk when they were leaving, but it was intercepted, and Nick was driven away by the two men.
Bill goes to return the costume — but not the mask, which he has misplaced — and Milich, with his daughter by his side, states he can do other favors for Bill "and it needn't be a costume." The same two Japanese men leave; Milich implies to Bill that he has sold his daughter for prostitution.
Bill returns to the country mansion in his own car and is met at the gate by a man with a note warning him to cease and desist his inquiries. At home, Bill thinks about Alice's dream while watching her tutor their daughter.
Bill reconsiders his sexual offers the night before. He first phones Marion, but hangs up after Carl answers the phone. Bill then goes to Domino's apartment with a gift. Her roommate Sally (Fay Masterson) is home, but not Domino. After Bill attempts to seduce Sally, she reveals to him that Domino has just tested positive for HIV. Bill leaves and notices a man is following him. After reading a newspaper story about a beauty queen who died of a drug overdose, Bill views the body at the morgue and identifies it as Mandy.
Bill is summoned to Ziegler's house, where he is confronted with the events of the past night and day. Ziegler was one of those involved with the ritual orgy, and identified Bill and his connection with Nick. His own position with the secret society has been jeopardized by Bill's intrusion since Ziegler recommended Nick for the job. Ziegler claims that he had Bill followed for his own protection, and that the warnings made against Bill by the society are only intended to scare him from speaking about the orgy. But he implies the society is capable of acting on their threats, telling Bill: "If I told you their names, I don't think you'd sleep so well". Bill asks about the death of Mandy, whom Ziegler has identified as the masked woman at the party who'd "sacrificed" herself to prevent Bill's punishment, and about the disappearance of Nick, the piano player. Ziegler insists that Nick is safely back at his home in Seattle. Ziegler also says the "punishment" was a charade by the secret society to further frighten Bill, and it had nothing to do with Mandy's death; she was a hooker and addict and had indeed died from another accidental drug overdose. Bill clearly does not know if Ziegler is telling him the truth about Nick's disappearance or Mandy's death, but he says nothing further and lets the matter drop.
When he returns home, Bill finds the rented mask on his pillow next to his sleeping wife. He breaks down in tears and decides to tell Alice the whole truth of the past two days. The next morning, they go Christmas shopping with their daughter. Alice muses that they should be grateful they have survived, that she loves him, and there is something they must do as soon as possible. When Bill asks what it is, she simply says: "Fuck".
DevelopmentWhile Stanley Kubrick was interested in making a film about sexual relations as early as 1962, during production of Dr. Strangelove, the project only took off after he read Arthur Schnitzler's Dream Story in 1968, when he was seeking a work to follow on 2001: A Space Odyssey. Kubrick got interested in adapting the story, and with the help of then-journalist Jay Cocks, bought the filming rights to the novel. In the 1970s, Kubrick had thought of Woody Allen as the Jewish protagonist. For the following decade, Kubrick even considered making his Dream Story adaptation a sex comedy "with a wild and somber streak running through it", starring Steve Martin in the main role. The project was only revived in 1994, when Kubrick hired Frederic Raphael to work on the script, updating the setting from early 20th century Vienna to late 20th century New York City. Kubrick invited Michael Herr, a personal friend who helped write Full Metal Jacket, for revisions, but Herr declined for fear that he would both be underpaid and would commit to an overlong production.
AdaptationArthur Schnitzler's 1926 novella Dream Story is set around Vienna shortly after the turn of the century. The main characters are a couple named Fridolin and Albertina; their home is a typical suburban middle-class home, not the film's posh urban apartment. Schnitzler himself, like the protagonist of this novel, lived in Vienna, was Jewish, and a medical doctor, though Schnitzler eventually abandoned medicine for writing.
While Fridolin and Albertina, the protagonist couple of Dream Story, are sometimes implied to be Jewish, there is nothing in the novella which justifies this assumption, and neither Fridolin nor Albertina are typical Jewish names; whereas Nachtigall (Nightingale) is overtly identified as Jewish. Kubrick (himself of Jewish descent) frequently removed references to the Jewishness of characters in the novels he adapted. In the case of Eyes Wide Shut, Frederic Raphael (who is also Jewish) wanted to keep the Jewish background of the protagonists, but Kubrick insisted that they should be "vanilla" Americans, without any details that would arouse any presumptions. The director added that Bill should be a "Harrison Ford-ish goy" (though Ford's mother was Jewish), and created the surname of Harford as an allusion to the actor. This is reflected in the way the film's Bill Harford is taunted by college students when going home in the morning. In the film, Bill is taunted with homophobic slurs. In the novella, these boys are recognized to be members of an anti-Semitic college fraternity. Kubrick's co-screenwriter, Frederic Raphael, in an introduction to a Penguin Classics edition of Dream Story, writes "Fridolin is not declared to be a Jew, but his feelings of cowardice, for failing to challenge his aggressor, echo the uneasiness of Austrian Jews in the face of Gentile provocation."
The novella is set during the Carnival, when people often wear masks to parties. The party that both husband and wife attend at the opening of the story is a Carnival Masquerade ball, whereas the film's story begins at Christmas time.
Critic Randy Rasmussen suggests that the character of Bill is fundamentally more naïve, strait-laced, less disclosing and more unconscious of his vindictive motives than his counterpart, Fridolin. For Rasmussen and others, the film's Bill Harford is essentially sleep-walking through life with no deeper awareness of his surroundings. In the novella, when his wife discloses a private sexual fantasy, he in turn admits one of his own (of a girl in her mid to late teens), while in the film he is simply shocked. The film's argument over whether he has fantasies over female patients and whether women have sexual fantasies is simply absent from the novella, where both husband and wife assume the other has fantasies. In the film, Bill's estrangement from Alice revolves around her confessing a recent fantasy to him; in the novella, both exchange fantasies, after which she declares that in her youth she could have easily married someone else, which is what precipitates their sense of estrangement.
In the novella, the husband long suspected that his patient (Marion) was infatuated with him, while in the film it is a complete surprise and he seems shocked. He is also more overwhelmed by the orgy in the film than in the novella. Fridolin is socially bolder but less sexual with the prostitute (Mizzi in the novella, Domino in the film). Fridolin is also conscious of looking old in the novella, though he hardly does in the film.
In the novella, the party (which is sparsely attended) uses "Denmark" as the password for entrance; that is significant in that Albertina had her infatuation with her soldier in Denmark. The film's password is "Fidelio", from the Latin word for "faithful", and which is the title of Beethoven's only opera (Fidelio, or Married Love). In early drafts of the screenplay, the password was "Fidelio Rainbow". Jonathan Rosenbaum noted that both passwords echo elements of one member of the couple's behaviour, though in opposite ways. The party in the novella consists mostly of nude ballroom dancing.
In the novella, the woman who "redeems" Fridolin at the party, saving him from punishment, is costumed as a nun, and most of the characters at the party are dressed as nuns or monks; Fridolin himself used a monk costume. This aspect was retained in the film's original screenplay, but was deleted in the filmed version.
In the novella, when the husband returns home, the wife's dream is an elaborate drama that concludes with him getting crucified in a village square after Fridolin refuses to separate from Albertina and become the paramour of the village princess, even though Albertina is now occupied with copulating with other men, and watches him "without pity". By being faithful, Fridolin thus fails to save himself from execution in Albertina's dream, although he was apparently spared by the woman's "sacrifice" at the masked sex party. In both the novella and film, the wife states that the laugh in her sleep just before she woke was a laugh of scornful contempt for her husband; although awake, she states this matter-of-factly. The novella makes it clear that Fridolin at this point hates Albertina more than ever, thinking they are now lying together "like mortal enemies". It has been argued that the dramatic climax of the novella is actually Albertina's dream, and the film has shifted the focus to Bill's visit to the secret society's orgy, whose content is more shocking in the film.
The adaptation created a character with no counterpart in the novella: Ziegler, who represents both the high wealth and prestige to which Bill Harford aspires, and a connection between Bill's two worlds (his regular life, and the secret society organizing the ball). Critic Randy Rasmussen interprets Ziegler as representing Bill's worst self, much as in other Kubrick films; the title character in Dr. Strangelove represents the worst of the American national security establishment, Charles Grady represents the worst of Jack Torrance in The Shining, and Clare Quilty represents the worst of Humbert Humbert in Lolita.
Ziegler's presence allows Kubrick to change the mechanics of the story in a few ways. In the film, Bill first meets his piano-playing friend at Ziegler's party, and then while wandering around town, seeks him out at the Sonata Café. In the novella, the café encounter with Nightingale is a delightful coincidence. Similarly, the dead woman whom Bill suspects of being the woman at the party who saved him is a baroness that he was acquainted with earlier, not a hooker at Ziegler's party.
More significantly, in the film, Ziegler gives a commentary on the whole story to Bill, including an explanation that the party incident, where Bill is apprehended, threatened, and ultimately redeemed by the woman's sacrifice, was staged. Whether this is to be believed or not, it is an exposition of Ziegler's view of the ways of the world as a member of the power elite.
The novella explains why the husband's mask is on the pillow next to his sleeping wife, she having discovered it when it slipped out of his suitcase, and placing it there as a statement of understanding. This is left unexplained in the film and left to the viewer's interpretation.
CastingWhen Warner Bros. president Terry Semel approved production, he asked Kubrick to cast a movie star, as "you haven't done that since Jack Nicholson [in The Shining]." Cruise was in England because his wife Nicole Kidman was there shooting The Portrait of a Lady, and eventually Cruise decided to visit Kubrick's estate with Kidman. After that meeting, the director awarded them the roles.Jennifer Jason Leigh and Harvey Keitel each were cast and filmed by Kubrick. Due to scheduling conflicts, both had to drop out– first Keitel with Finding Graceland, then Leigh with eXistenZ– and they were replaced by Marie Richardson and Sydney Pollack in the final cut.
FilmingPrincipal photography began in November 1996. Kubrick's perfectionism led to script pages being rewritten on the set, and most scenes requiring numerous takes. The shoot went much longer than expected, with Vinessa Shaw—playing the HIV-positive prostitute—being initially contracted for two weeks, but ending up working for two months. The crew got exhausted. Filming finally wrapped in June 1998. The Guinness World Records recognized Eyes Wide Shut as the longest constant movie shoot, "for over 15 months, a period that included an unbroken shoot of 46 weeks".
Given Kubrick's fear of flying, the entire film was shot in England. Sound-stage works were done at London's Pinewood Studios, which included a detailed recreation of Greenwich Village. Kubrick's perfectionism went as far as sending workmen to Manhattan to measure street widths and note newspaper vending machine locations. Real New York footage was also shot to be rear projected behind Cruise. Production was followed by a strong campaign of secrecy, helped by Kubrick always working with a short team on set. Outdoor locations included Hatton Garden for a Greenwich Village street,Hamleys for the toy store from the film's ending, and Mentmore Towers and Elveden Hall in Elveden, Suffolk, England for the mansion. Larry Smith, who had first served as a gaffer on both Barry Lyndon and The Shining, was chosen by Kubrick to be the film's cinematographer. Kubrick refused to use studio lighting, forcing Smith to use the available light sources visible in the shot, such as lamps and Christmas tree lights. When this was not adequate, Smith used Chinese paper ball lamps to softly brighten the scene. The color was enhanced by push processing the film reels, which helped bring out the intensity of color.
Kubrick's perfectionism led him to oversee every visual element that would appear in a given frame, from props and furniture to the color of walls and other objects. One such element were the masks used in the orgy, which were inspired by the masked Carnival balls visited by the protagonists of the novel. Costume designer Marit Allen explained that Kubrick felt they fit in that scene for being part of the imaginary world, and ended up "creat[ing] the impression of menace, but without exaggeration". Many masks as used in the Venetian carnival were sent to London, and Kubrick separated who would wear each piece. The paintings of Kubrick's wife Christiane are featured on decoration.
After shooting completed, Kubrick entered a prolonged post-production process. On March 1, 1999, Kubrick showed a cut to Cruise, Kidman, and the Warner Bros. executives. The director died six days later.
MusicJocelyn Pook wrote the original music for Eyes Wide Shut, but like other Kubrick movies, the film was noted for its usage of classical music. The opening title music is Shostakovich's "Suite for Variety Stage Orchestra", misidentified as "Waltz 2 from Jazz Suite". One recurring piece is the second movement of György Ligeti's piano cycle "Musica ricercata". Kubrick originally intended to feature "Im Treibhaus" from Wagner's Wesendonck Lieder, but the director eventually replaced it with Ligeti's tune feeling Wagner's song was "too beautiful". In the morgue scene, Franz Liszt's late solo piano piece, "Nuages Gris" ("Grey Clouds") (1881), is heard."Rex tremendae" from Mozart's Requiem plays as Bill walks into the cafe and reads of Mandy's death.
Pook was hired after choreographer Yolande Snaith rehearsed the masked ball orgy scene using Pook's composition "Backwards Priests"– which features a Romanian OrthodoxDivine Liturgy recorded in a church in Baia Mare, played backwards – as a reference track. Kubrick then called the composer and asked if she had anything else "weird" like that song, which was reworked for the final cut of the scene, with the title "Masked Ball". Pook ended up composing and recording four pieces of music, many times based on her previous work, totaling 24 minutes. The composer's work ended up having mostly string instruments– including a viola played by Pook herself – with no brass or woodwinds as Pook "just couldn't justify these other textures", particularly as she wanted the tracks played on dialogue-heavy scenes to be "subliminal" and felt such instruments would be intrusive.
Another track in the orgy, "Migrations", features a Tamil song sung by Manickam Yogeswaran, a Carnatic singer. The original cut had a scriptural recitation of the Bhagavad Gita, which Pook took from a previous Yogeswaran recording. As a result of Hindus protesting against their most sacred scripture being used in such a context, Warner Bros. issued a public apology, and hired the singer to record a similar track to replace the chant.
The party at Ziegler's house features rearrangements of love songs such as "When I Fall in Love" and "It Had to Be You", used in increasingly ironic ways considering how Alice and Bill flirt with other people in the scene. As Kidman was nervous about doing nude scenes, Kubrick stated she could bring music to liven up. When Kidman brought a Chris Isaak CD, Kubrick approved it, and incorporated Isaak's song "Baby Did a Bad, Bad Thing" to both an early romantic embrace of Bill and Alice and the film's trailer.
Themes and interpretation
GenreThe film was described by some reviewers, and partially marketed, as an erotic thriller, a categorization disputed by others. It is classified as such in the book The Erotic Thriller in Contemporary Cinema, by Linda Ruth Williams, and was described as such in news articles about Cruise and Kidman's lawsuit over assertions they saw a sex therapist during filming. The positive review in Combustible Celluloid describes it as an erotic thriller upon first viewing, but actually a "complex story about marriage and sexuality". High-Def Digest also called it an erotic thriller.
However, reviewing the film at AboutFilm.com, Carlo Cavagna regards this as a misleading classification, as does Leo Goldsmith, writing at notcoming.com, and the review on Blu-ray.com. Writing in TV Guide, Maitland McDonagh writes "No one familiar with the cold precision of Kubrick's work will be surprised that this isn't the steamy erotic thriller a synopsis (or the ads) might suggest." Writing in general about the genre of 'erotic thriller' for CineAction in 2001, Douglas Keesey states that "whatever [Eyes Wide Shut's] actual type, [it] was at least marketed as an erotic thriller". Michael Koresky, writing in the 2006 issue of film journal Reverse Shot, writes "this director, who defies expectations at every turn and brings genre to his feet, was ... setting out to make neither the 'erotic thriller' that the press maintained nor an easily identifiable 'Kubrick film'".DVD Talk similarly dissociates the film from this genre.
Christmas settingIn addition to relocating the story from Vienna in the 1900s to New York City in the 1990s, Kubrick changed the time-frame of Schnitzler's story from Mardi Gras to Christmas. One critic believed Kubrick did this because of the rejuvenating symbolism of Christmas. Others have noted that Christmas lights allow Kubrick to employ some of his distinct methods of shooting including using source location lighting, as he did in Barry Lyndon. The New York Times noted that the film "gives an otherworldly radiance and personality to Christmas lights", and critic Randy Rasmussen noted that "colorful Christmas lights ... illuminate almost every location in the film."Harper's film critic, Lee Siegel, believes the film's recurring motif is the Christmas tree, because it symbolizes the way that "Compared with the everyday reality of sex and emotion, our fantasies of gratification are, yes, pompous and solemn in the extreme ... For desire is like Christmas: it always promises more than it delivers." Author Tim Kreider noted that the "Satanic" mansion-party at Somerton is the only set in the film without a Christmas tree, stating "Almost every set is suffused with the dreamlike, hazy glow of colored lights and tinsel ... Eyes Wide Shut, though it was released in summer, was the Christmas movie of 1999." Noting that Kubrick has shown viewers the dark side of Christmas consumerism, Louise Kaplan stated that the film illustrates ways that the "material reality of money" is shown replacing the spiritual values of Christmas, charity and compassion. While virtually every scene has a Christmas tree, there is "no Christmas music or cheery Christmas spirit." Critic Alonso Duralde, in his book Have Yourself a Movie Little Christmas, categorized the film as a "Christmas movie for grownups" (as he also did with Bergman's Fanny and Alexander and The Lion in Winter), arguing that "Christmas weaves its way through the film from start to finish".
Use of Venetian masks Authors Tim Kreider and Thomas Nelson have linked the film's usage of these to Venice's reputation as a center of both eroticism and mercantilism. Nelson notes that the sex ritual combines elements of Venetian Carnival and Catholic rites. (In particular, the character of "Red Cloak" simultaneously serves as Grand Inquisitor and King of Carnival.) As such, Nelson argues the sex ritual is a symbolic mirror of the darker truth behind the façade of Victor Ziegler's earlier Christmas party. Writing in her 2007 book Symbols in Stanley Kubrick's Movie 'Eyes Wide Shut', Carolin Ruwe argues that the mask is the prime symbol of the film, the masks at Somerton mansion reflecting the masks that all wear in society, a point reinforced by Tim Kreider, who noted the many masks in the prostitute's apartment and her having been renamed in the film "Domino", which is a style of Venetian mask.
MarketingWarner Bros. heavily promoted Eyes Wide Shut, while following Kubrick's secrecy campaign – to the point the film's press kits contained no production notes – and also the director's suggestions to Semel regarding the marketing campaign, given one week prior to Kubrick's death. The first footage was shown to theater owners attending the 1999 edition of the ShoWest convention in Las Vegas. TV spots featured both Isaak and Ligeti's songs from the soundtrack, while revealing little about the movie's plot. The film also appeared on the cover of Time magazine, and on show business programs such as Entertainment Tonight and Access Hollywood.
Box officeEyes Wide Shut opened on July 16, 1999, in the United States. The film topped the weekend box office, with $21.7 million from 2,411 screens. These numbers surpassed the studio's expectations of $20 million, and became both Cruise's sixth consecutive chart topper and Kubrick's highest opening weekend. Audiences attendance dropped from Friday to Saturday, which analysts attributed to the news coverage of John F. Kennedy, Jr.'s disappearance.Eyes Wide Shut ended up grossing a total of $55,691,208 in the US. The numbers put it as Kubrick's second most successful film in the country, behind 2001: A Space Odyssey, but were considered a box office disappointment.
Shortly after its screening at the Venice Film Festival, Eyes Wide Shut had a British premiere on September 3, 1999, at the Warner Village cinema in Leicester Square. The film's wide opening occurred the following weekend, and topped the UK charts with £1,189,672. It remained atop the charts the following weekend, and finished its box office run with £5,065,520.
The international performances for Eyes Wide Shut were more positive, with Kubrick's long-time assistant and brother-in-law Jan Harlan stating that "It was badly received in the Anglo-Saxon world, but it was very well received in the Latin world and Japan. In Italy, it was a huge hit." Overseas earnings of over $105 million led to a $162,091,208 box office run worldwide, turning it into the highest-grossing Kubrick film.
Critical receptionEyes Wide Shut received positive reviews from critics, and currently has a "Certified Fresh" score of 74% on Rotten Tomatoes, based on 146 reviews with an average rating of 7.5 out of 10. The critical consensus states "Kubrick's intense study of the human psyche yields an impressive cinematic work." The film also has a score of 68 out of 100 on Metacritic, based on 33 critics, indicating "Generally favorable reviews". Over 50 critics listed the film among the best of 1999.
Critics objected to two elements. The first complaint was that the movie's pacing was too slow; while this may have been intended to convey a dream state, critics objected that it made actions and decisions seem labored. Second, reviewers commented that Kubrick had shot his NYC scenes in a studio and that New York "didn't look like New York". Writing about erotic mystery thrillers, writer Leigh Lundin comments that watching the dissolving marriage was painful and the backdrop of Christmas against the dark topic was disturbing, but "the oblique, well-told plot rewards an attentive viewer".
Lee Siegel from Harper's felt that most critics responded mainly to the marketing campaign and did not address the film on its own terms. Others felt that American censorship took an esoteric film and made it even harder to understand. Reviewer James Berardinelli stated that it was arguably one of Kubrick's best films. Writing for The New York Times, reviewer Janet Maslin commented "This is a dead-serious film about sexual yearnings, one that flirts with ridicule yet sustains its fundamental eeriness and gravity throughout. The dreamlike intensity of previous Kubrick visions is in full force here."
On the television show Roger Ebert & the Movies, director Martin Scorsese named Eyes Wide Shut his fourth-favorite film of the 1990s. For the introduction to Michel Ciment's Kubrick: The Definitive Edition, Scorsese wrote: "When Eyes Wide Shut came out a few months after Stanley Kubrick's death in 1999, it was severely misunderstood, which came as no surprise. If you go back and look at the contemporary reactions to any Kubrick picture (except the earliest ones), you'll see that all his films were initially misunderstood. Then, after five or ten years came the realization that 2001 or Barry Lyndon or The Shining was like nothing else before or since." Mystery writer and commentator Jon Breen agreed. In 2012, Slant Magazine ranked the film #2 on its list of the 100 Best Films of the 1990s. The BBC listed it number 61 on their 100 greatest American films of all time.
Awards and honors
Home mediaEyes Wide Shut was first released in VHS and DVD on March 7, 2000. The original DVD release corrects technical gaffes, including a reflected crew member, and altering a piece of Alice Harford's dialogue. Most home videos remove the verse that was claimed to be cited from the sacred Hindu scripture Bhagavad Gita (although it was Pook's reworking of "Backwards Priests" as stated above.)
On October 23, 2007, Warner Home Video released Eyes Wide Shut in a special edition DVD, plus the HD DVD and Blu-ray Disc formats. This is the first home video release that presents the film in anamorphic 1.78:1 (16:9) format (note that the film was shown theatrically as soft matted 1.66:1 in Europe and 1.85:1 in the USA and Japan). The previous DVD release used a 1.33:1 (4:3) aspect ratio. It is also the first American home video release to feature the uncut version. Although the earliest American DVD of the uncut version states on the cover that it includes both the R-rated and unrated editions, in actuality only the unrated edition is on the DVD.
Kubrick's opinionJan Harlan, Kubrick's brother-in-law and executive producer, reported that Kubrick was "very happy" with the film and considered it to be his "greatest contribution to the art of cinema".
R. Lee Ermey, an actor in Kubrick's film Full Metal Jacket, claimed that Kubrick phoned him two weeks before his death to express his despondency over Eyes Wide Shut. "He told me it was a piece of shit", Ermey said in Radar magazine, "and that he was disgusted with it and that the critics were going to 'have him for lunch'. He said Cruise and Kidman had their way with him – exactly the words he used."
According to Todd Field, Kubrick's friend and an actor in Eyes Wide Shut, Ermey's claims do not accurately reflect Kubrick's essential attitude. Field's response appeared in a 26 October 2006 interview with Slashfilm.com:
The polite thing would be to say 'No comment'. But the truth is that ... let's put it this way, you've never seen two actors more completely subservient and prostrate themselves at the feet of a director. Stanley was absolutely thrilled with the film. He was still working on the film when he died. And he probably died because he finally relaxed. It was one of the happiest weekends of his life, right before he died, after he had shown the first cut to Terry, Tom and Nicole. He would have kept working on it, like he did on all of his films. But I know that from people around him personally, my partner who was his assistant for thirty years. And I thought about R. Lee Ermey for In the Bedroom. And I talked to Stanley a lot about that film, and all I can say is Stanley was adamant that I shouldn't work with him for all kinds of reasons that I won't get into because there is no reason to do that to anyone, even if they are saying slanderous things that I know are completely untrue.In a reddit"Ask Me Anything" session, Stanley Kubrick's daughter, Katharina Kubrick, claimed that her father was very proud of the film. She also discredited Ermey's claims, saying to a user who asked about Kubrick's alleged comments, "[not to] believe that for a second."
Studio censorship and classificationCiting contractual obligations to deliver an R rating, Warner Bros. digitally altered the orgy for the American release, blocking out graphic sexuality by inserting additional figures to obscure the view, avoiding an adults-only NC-17 rating that limited distribution, as some large American theaters and video store operators disallow films with that rating. This alteration antagonized film critics and cinephiles, as they argued that Kubrick had never been shy about ratings (A Clockwork Orange was originally given an X-rating). The unrated version of Eyes Wide Shut was released in the United States on October 23, 2007, in DVD, HD DVD, and Blu-ray Disc formats.
The version in South America, Europe and Australia featured the orgy scene intact (theatrical and DVD release) with ratings mostly for people of 18+. In New Zealand and in Europe, the uncensored version has been shown on television with some controversy. In Australia, it was broadcast on Network Ten with the alterations in the American version for an MA rating, blurring and cutting explicit sexuality.
Roger Ebert objected to the technique of using digital images to mask the action. He said it "should not have been done at all" and it is "symbolic of the moral hypocrisy of the rating system that it would force a great director to compromise his vision, while by the same process making his adult film more accessible to young viewers." Although Ebert has been frequently cited as calling the standard North American R-rated version the "Austin Powers" version of Eyes Wide Shut– referencing two scenes in Austin Powers: International Man of Mystery in which, through camera angles and coincidences, sexual body parts are blocked from view in a comical way– his review stated that this joke referred to an early rough draft of the altered scene, never publicly released.
Weiser edition cover
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The Zelator: A Modern Initiate Explores the Ancient Mysteries, by Mark Hedsel, edited by David Ovason, is a spiritual autobiography relating one man's travels through much of Western and some Eastern esoteric teaching. This style of free, individual searching is called the Way of the Fool in the book.
The Zelator is a rich commentary on representations of esoteric principles in art, tradition, architecture, living schools and much more. At one point Hedsel discusses his studies in Paris, probably under George Gurdjieff, although the latter is not specifically named.
The book is very well sourced, with extensive appendices and references. This is an excellent source for an overview of Western esoteric tradition.
See alsoThe following pages explore concepts and contain quotes from this work:
Mark Hedsel discusses this concept in his book The Zelator. Specifically, the Way of the Fool is an independent path of initiation where the student can at different times study under many masters but will not make any lifelong commitment to any one path nor enter into vows of secrecy.
The following excerpts from The Zelator may shed light on the spirit of this way:
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Blavatsky claimed that its contents had been revealed to her by 'mahatmas' who had retained knowledge of humanity's spiritual history, knowledge that it was now possible, in part, to reveal.[not verified in body]
Volume one (Cosmogenesis)The first part of the book explains the origin and evolution of the universe itself, in terms derived from the Hindu concept of cyclical development. The world and everything in it is said to alternate between periods of activity (manvantaras) and periods of passivity (pralayas). Each manvantara lasts many millions of years and consists of a number of Yugas, in accordance with Hindu cosmology.
Blavatsky attempted to demonstrate that the discoveries of "materialist" science had been anticipated in the writings of ancient sages and that materialism would be proven wrong.
Cosmic evolution: Items of cosmogonyIn this recapitulation of The Secret Doctrine, Blavatsky gave a summary of the central points of her system of cosmogony. These central points are as follows:
Volume two (Anthropogenesis)The second half of the book describes the origins of humanity through an account of "Root Races" said to date back millions of years. The first root race was, according to her, "ethereal"; the second root had more physical bodies and lived in Hyperborea. The third root race, the first to be truly human, is said to have existed on the lost continent of Lemuria and the fourth root race is said to have developed in Atlantis.
According to Blavatsky, the fifth root race is approximately one million years old, overlapping the fourth root race and the very first beginnings of the fifth root race were approximately in the middle of the fourth root race.
"The real line of evolution differs from the Darwinian, and the two systems are irreconcilable," according to Blavatsky, "except when the latter is divorced from the dogma of 'Natural Selection'." She explained that, "by 'Man' the divine Monad is meant, and not the thinking Entity, much less his physical body.""Occultism rejects the idea that Nature developed man from the ape, or even from an ancestor common to both, but traces, on the contrary, some of the most anthropoid species to the Third Race man." In other words, "the 'ancestor' of the present anthropoid animal, the ape, is the direct production of the yet mindless Man, who desecrated his human dignity by putting himself physically on the level of an animal."
Volumes three and fourBlavatsky wanted to publish a third and fourth volume of The Secret Doctrine. After Blavatsky's death, a controversial third volume of The Secret Doctrine was published by Annie Besant.
Three fundamental propositionsBlavatsky explained the essential component ideas of her cosmogony in her magnum opus, The Secret Doctrine. She began with three fundamental propositions, of which she said:
Before the reader proceeds … it is absolutely necessary that he should be made acquainted with the few fundamental conceptions which underlie and pervade the entire system of thought to which his attention is invited. These basic ideas are few in number, and on their clear apprehension depends the understanding of all that follows…The first proposition is that there is one underlying, unconditioned, indivisible Truth, variously called "the Absolute", "the Unknown Root", "the One Reality", etc. It is causeless and timeless, and therefore unknowable and non-describable: "It is 'Be-ness' rather than Being".[a] However, transient states of matter and consciousness are manifested in IT, in an unfolding gradation from the subtlest to the densest, the final of which is physical plane. According to this view, manifest existence is a "change of condition"[b] and therefore neither the result of creation nor a random event.
Everything in the universe is informed by the potentialities present in the "Unknown Root," and manifest with different degrees of Life (or energy), Consciousness, and Matter.[c]
The second proposition is "the absolute universality of that law of periodicity, of flux and reflux, ebb and flow". Accordingly, manifest existence is an eternally re-occurring event on a "boundless plane": "'the playground of numberless Universes incessantly manifesting and disappearing,'" each one "standing in the relation of an effect as regards its predecessor, and being a cause as regards its successor", doing so over vast but finite periods of time.[d]
Related to the above is the third proposition: "The fundamental identity of all Souls with the Universal Over-Soul... and the obligatory pilgrimage for every Soul—a spark of the former—through the Cycle of Incarnation (or 'Necessity') in accordance with Cyclic and Karmic law, during the whole term." The individual souls are seen as units of consciousness (Monads) that are intrinsic parts of a universal oversoul, just as different sparks are parts of a fire. These Monads undergo a process of evolution where consciousness unfolds and matter develops. This evolution is not random, but informed by intelligence and with a purpose. Evolution follows distinct paths in accord with certain immutable laws, aspects of which are perceivable on the physical level. One such law is the law of periodicity and cyclicity; another is the law of karma or cause and effect.
Theories on human evolution and raceIn the second volume of The Secret Doctrine, dedicated to anthropogenesis, Blavatsky presents a theory of the gradual evolution of physical humanity over a timespan of millions of years. The steps in this evolution are called rootraces, seven in all. Earlier rootraces exhibited completely different characteristics: physical bodies first appearing in the second rootrace and sexual characteristics in the third.
Some detractors have emphasized passages and footnotes that claim some peoples to be less fully human or spiritual than the "Aryans". For example,
She also prophesies of the destruction of the racial "failures of nature" as the "higher race" ascends:
Study of the Secret DoctrineAccording to PGB Bowen, Blavatsky gave the following instructions regarding the study of the Secret Doctrine:
Reading the SD page by page as one reads any other book (she says) will only end us in confusion. The first thing to do, even if it takes years, is to get some grasp of the 'Three Fundamental Principles' given in the Proem. Follow that up by study of the Recapitulation – the numbered items in the Summing Up to Vol. I (Part 1.) Then take the Preliminary Notes (Vol. II) and the Conclusion (Vol. II)
Writings about "The Secret Doctrine"
Critical receptionHistorian Ronald H. Fritze has written that The Secret Doctrine presents a "series of far-fetched ideas unsupported by any reliable historical or scientific research." According to Fritze:
Unfortunately the factual basis for Blavatsky's book is nonexistent. She claimed to have received her information during trances in which the Masters of Mahatmas of Tibet communicated with her and allowed her to read from the ancient Book of Dzyan. The Book of Dzyan was supposedly composed in Atlantis using the lost language of Senzar but the difficulty is that no scholar of ancient languages in the 1880s or since has encountered the slightest passing reference to the Book of Dzyan or the Senzar language.Scholars and skeptics have criticized The Secret Doctrine for plagiarism. It is said to have been heavily influenced by occult and oriental works.
L. Sprague de Camp in his book Lost Continents has written that Blavatsky's main sources were "H. H. Wilson's translation of the ancient Indian Vishnu Purana; Alexander Winchell's World Life; or, Comparative Geology; Donnelly's Atlantis; and other contemporary scientific, pseudo-scientific, and occult works, plagiarized without credit and used in a blundering manner that showed but skin-deep acquaintance with the subjects under discussion." Camp described the book as a "mass of plagiarism and fakery."
The book has also been accused of antisemitism and criticized for its emphasis on race. Historian Hannah Newman has noted that the book "denigrates the Jewish faith as harmful to human spirituality". Historian Michael Marrus has written that Blavatsky's racial ideas "could be easily misused" and that her book had helped to foster antisemitism in Germany during World War II.